DISCOVERY LEARNING

Posted by PENDIDIKAN KEWARGANEGARAAN on Friday, January 3, 2014

To achieve the quality that has been designed in the curriculum documents, instructional activities need to use the principle that: (1) centered on the learner, (2) develop the creativity of learners, (3) creating a fun and challenging conditions, (4) uncharged values​​, ethics, aesthetics, logic, and kinestetika, and (5) provide a variety of learning experiences through the application of various strategies and fun learning methods, contextual, effective, efficient, and meaningful.

In the study, students are encouraged to discover themselves and transform complex information, checking new information that already exists in memory, and to develop into information or capabilities that suit the environment and times where and when he lived. Curriculum in 2013 embraced the view that the knowledge base can not be moved away from the teacher to the learner. Learners are subjects that have the ability to actively seek, process, construct, and use knowledge. For it must respect the learning opportunities provided for learners to construct knowledge in cognitive processes.

1 Definitions
Strategy discovery learning is a learning theory which is defined as the process of learning that occurs when students are not presented with a lesson in its final form, but are expected to organize themselves. As Bruner opinion, that: "Discovery Learning can be defined as the learning that takes place when the student is not presented with the subject matter in the final form, but rather is required to organize it him self" (Lefancois in Emetembun, 1986: 103 ). Which makes the basic ideas of Piaget Bruner is the opinion which states that a child should play an active role in learning in the classroom.
Bruner uses a strategy called discovery learning, where students learn to organize material with a final form (Dalyono, 1996: 41). The strategy is to understand the concept of discovery learning, meaning, and relationships, through the intuitive process to finally come to a conclusion (Budiningsih, 2005: 43). Discovery occurs when individuals are involved, especially in the use of mental processes to find some of the concepts and principles. Discovery is done via tail observation, classification, measurement, prediction, determination. The process is called cognitive process itself while the discovery is the mental process of assimilatig conceps and principles in the mind (Robert B. Sund in Malik, 2001: 219).
As a strategy of learning, discovery learning has the same principle with the inquiry (inquiry) and problem solving. There is no difference of principle in the third term, in discovery learning is more emphasis on the discovery of concepts or principles that were previously unknown. The difference with the discovery is that the discovery issues that confronted the sort of problems that learners engineered by the teacher. While the problem is not the result of engineering inquiry, so that learners have to put all your thoughts and skills to get the findings in the matter through the research process, while solving more emphasis on the ability to solve problems.

2 concept
In concept learning, discovery learning real strategy is the establishment of categories or concepts, which can allow for generalization. As Bruner's theory of categorization that appear in the discovery, that discovery is the formation of categories, or more commonly called coding systems. The formation of the categories and coding systems thus formulated in terms of the relations (similarity and difference) that occur between objects and events (events). Bruner believes that a concept or categorization has five elements, and the students said to understand a concept when knowing all the elements of the concept include: 1) Name; 2) Examples of both positive and negative; 3) Characteristics, both the principal or not; 4) The range of characteristics; 5) Rule (Budiningsih, 2005: 43). Bruner explained that the formation of the concept of categorizing two different activities that require different thinking processes. All activities include identifying and categorizing put examples (objects or events) into classes using certain basic criteria.
In the process of learning, Bruner concerned with the active participation of each learner, and be familiar with the differences in capabilities. To support the learning environment should facilitate the curiosity of students in the exploration stage. This environment is called discovery learning environment, which is an environment where students can explore, new discoveries are not yet known or understanding similar to those already known. This environment aims to make the students in the learning process can work well and be more creative.
To facilitate a good learning process and creative manipulation of materials should be based on the lessons according to the level of cognitive development of learners. Manipulation of teaching materials aimed at facilitating the ability of learners in thinking (representing what is understood) in accordance with the level of development. According to Bruner cognitive development occurs through three stages are determined by how the environment, namely: enactiv, iconic, and symbolic. Enaktiv stage, someone doing activities in an effort to understand the surrounding environment, that is, in the sense of the world around the child using motor knowledge, for example through a bite, touch, handle, and so on. Iconic stage, one understands objects or her world through images and verbal visualization. That is, the child learns to understand the world around them through the form of a parable (to appear) and comparison (comparison). Symbolic stage, a person has been able to have ideas or abstract ideas are strongly influenced by its ability in language and logic. In understanding the surrounding world children learn through the symbols of language, logic, mathematics, and so on.
In the end, the objectives in the strategy according to Bruner's discovery learning is to let the teacher gives his students the opportunity to become a problem solver, a scientist, historin, or mathematician. And through these activities students will master it, apply, and find things that are beneficial to themselves. The most obvious characteristic of the discovery as a teaching strategy is that after the initial levels (with the previous) teaching, guidance teachers let more reduced than in other teaching strategies. This does not mean that the teacher stopped to provide assistance after a problem is presented to the learner. However, the guidance given is not only reduced but direktifnya students are given greater responsibility for their own learning.






3 Excess Application of Discovery Learning
1) Helping learners to improve and enhance the skills and cognitive processes. Discovery efforts are key in this process, a person depending on how they learn.
2) The knowledge gained through this strategy is very personal and powerful because it strengthens the understanding, retention and transfer.
3) Potential joy to students, because the growing sense of investigating and successfully.
4) This strategy enables learners develop rapidly and according to their own pace.
5) Causing learners direct their own learning activities involving his wits and his own motivation.
6) This strategy can help students reinforce the concept itself, because gaining confidence in collaboration with others.
7) centered on the learner and the teacher acts equally active issue ideas. Even the teachers can act as learners, and as a researcher in the discussion situation.
8) Helping learners eliminate skepticism (skepticism) because it leads to the final truth and certain or definite.
9) Students will understand basic concepts and ideas better;
10) Assist and develop retention and transfer to the new learning situation;
11) Encourage students to think and work on their own initiative;
12) Encourage learners to think and formulate hypotheses own intuition;
13) Provide a decision that is intrinsic;
14) The situation becomes more stimulated and learning process;
15) The learning process includes aspects fellow learners towards the formation of the whole man;
16) Increase the rate of appreciation in the learners;
17) Possible learners learn by utilizing various types of learning resources;
18) Can develop individual talents and skills.

4 Operational Implementation Steps in Learning Process
Preparation Step 1 Discovery Learning Strategy
a. Determine the purpose of learning
b. To identify the characteristics of learners (initial capabilities, interests, learning styles, and so on)
c. Choosing subject matter.
d. Determining the topics to be studied are inductive learners (from the examples of generalization)
e. Develop learning materials in the form of examples, illustrations, and so the task for learners studied
f. Set the lesson topics from simple to complex, from the concrete to the abstract, or from the stage enaktif, iconic to symbolic
g. Conduct assessment processes and learning outcomes of students
2 Application Procedure Discovery Learning Strategy
According to Shah (2004: 244) in applying the discovery learning strategies in the classroom, there are some procedures that should be implemented in the teaching and learning activities in general as follows:
a. Stimulation (stimulation / granting of stimulation)
First of all at this stage students are faced with something that causes confusion, then proceed to not give a generalization, so that the desire to investigate itself. Besides, teachers can begin by asking questions PBM activities, recommended reading books, and other learning activities leading to the preparation of problem solving. Stimulation at this stage serves to provide the conditions of learning interactions that can develop and assist learners in exploring material.
b. Problem statement (statement / identification problem)
After stimulation selanjutya step is to give the teacher an opportunity to students to identify as many as possible agendas of issues relevant to the lesson material, then one of them is selected and formulated in the form of hypotheses (while the answer to the question of issue) (Shah 2004: 244). Give learners the opportunity to identify and analyze the problems they face, is a useful technique in building learners so that they are accustomed to find a problem.
c. Data collection (data collection).
When the ongoing exploration of teachers also provide an opportunity for learners to gather as much information that is relevant to prove the truth of the hypothesis (Shah, 2004: 244). At this stage serves to answer the question or prove the truth of the hypothesis, thus students are given the opportunity to collect (collection) of various relevant information, reading literature, watching the object, interviews with informants, conduct their own trials and so on. The consequence of this is the stage learners learn actively to find something related to the problems faced, thus inadvertently connecting learners problems with existing knowledge.
d. Data processing (data processing)
According to Shah (2004: 244) is a data processing activity to process the data and information that has been obtained by the learners either through interviews, observation, and so on, then interpreted, and everything is processed, randomized, classified, tabulated, even if it is calculated in a certain way and interpreted at a given confidence level (Djamarah, 2002: 22). Data processing is also called the coding coding / categorization that serves as the formation of concepts and generalizations. From these generalizations learners will gain new knowledge about alternative answer / solution needs to be proof logically
e. Verification (proof)
At this stage learners perform a careful examination to prove whether or not the hypothesis set out earlier by finding alternatives, associated with the results of data processing (Shah, 2004: 244). Based on the results of the processing and interpretation, or the information, statements or hypotheses that have been formulated earlier were then checked, whether answered or not, whether proven or not.
f. Generalization (draw conclusions / generalizations)
Stage generalization / draw conclusions is the process of pulling a conclusion can be made and the general principles applicable to all events or the same problem, having regard to the results of the verification (Shah, 2004: 244). Based on the results of verification of the formulated principles underlying generalization. After drawing conclusions learners must pay attention to the process of generalization which emphasizes the importance of mastering a lesson on the meaning and rules or principles underlying the extensive experience of a person, as well as the importance of the process of setting and generalization of those experiences.

5. System Assessment
In discovery learning instructional strategies, assessment can be done using tests and non-test. While assessments may be used cognitive assessment, processes, attitudes, or performance assessments of learners. If penilainnya form a cognitive assessment, then the discovery learning learning strategies can use the written test.

Reading Material
Barrows, H.S.  1996.  “Problem-based learning in medicine and beyond: A brief overview” Dalam Bringing problem-based learning to higher education: Theory and Practice (hal 3-12).  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Delisle, R. (1997). How to Use Problem_Based Learning In the Classroom. Alexandria, Virginia USA: ASCD.
Gijselaers, W.H.  1996. “Connecting problem-based practices with educational theory.” Dalam Bringing problem-based learning to higher education: Theory and Practice (hal 13-21).  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Nur, M. 2011. Pembelajaran Berdasarkan Masalah. Surabaya: PSMS Unesa.
Tim Sertifikasi Unesa. 2010. Modul Pembelajaran Inovatif. Surabaya: PLPG Unesa.
Arend, R.I. 2001. Learning to Teach, 5th Ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill Company, Inc.
Baldwin, A.L. 1967. Theories of Child Development. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Carin, A.A. & Sund, R.B. 1975. Teaching Science trough Discovery, 3rd Ed. Columbus: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Company.
Carin, A.A. 1993. Teaching Science Through Discovery. ( 7th. ed. ) New York: Maxwell Macmillan International.
Muller, U.,  Carpendale, J.I.M.,  Smith, L. 2009.  The Cambridge Companion to PIAGET. Cambridge University Press.
Nur, M. 1998. Teori-teori Perkembangan. Surabaya: Institut Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan.
Nur, M. & Wikandari, P.R. 2000. Pengajaran Berpusat Kepada Siswa Dan Pendekatan Konstruktivis Dalam Pengajaran. Surabaya : Universitas Negeri Surabaya University Press.
Osborne, R.J. & Wittrock, M.C. 1985. Learning Science: A Generative Process, Science Education, 64, 4: 489-503.
Sund, R.B. & Trowbridge, L.W. 1973. Teaching Science by Inquiry in the Secondary School, 3rd Ed. Columbus: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Company.

Sutherland, P. 1992. Cognitive Development Today: Piaget and his Critics. London: Paul Chapman Publishing Ltd.

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Blog, Updated at: 3:45:00 AM

2 komentar:

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