Posted by PENDIDIKAN KEWARGANEGARAAN on Minggu, 05 Januari 2014

Problem-Based Learning was developed in medical school in Ontario Canada in the 1960s (Barrows, 1996). This strategy was developed in response to the fact that the young doctor who had just graduated from medical school that has a very rich knowledge, but lack the adequate skills to utilize this knowledge in daily practice. Subsequent developments, Problem-Based Learning more widely applied in various subjects in schools and colleges.

1. Definition of Problem-Based Learning
PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING is learning that uses real problem (authentic) unstructured (ill-structured) and is open as a context for students to develop problem-solving skills and critical thinking as well as well as build new knowledge. Unlike the conventional learning that makes a real problem as the application of concepts, Problem-Based Learning as a trigger to make real problems for the learners' learning process before they know the formal concept. Learners critically identify relevant information and strategies as well as conduct investigations to resolve the problem. By solving the problem learners acquire or construct specific knowledge and simultaneously developing critical thinking skills and problem-solving skills. Perhaps, the knowledge gained learners are still informal. However, through a process of discussion, so that knowledge can be consolidated into a formal knowledge-knowledge that is interwoven with the existing knowledge of learners.

Various studies on the application of problem-based learning showed positive results. For example, research Gijselaers (1996) showed that the application of PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING make students able to identify known and necessary information and strategies needed to solve the problem. Thus, the application of problem-based learning can enhance students' ability to solve problems.

2.The purpose of Problem-Based Learning
The main objective Problem-Based Learning is not a huge amount of knowledge delivery to students, but rather on the development of critical thinking skills and problem solving skills and also develop the ability of learners to actively construct their own knowledge. PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING is also intended to develop independent learning and social skills of learners. Independent learning and social skills that can be formed when learners collaborate to identify the information, strategies, and relevant learning resources to resolve the problem.

3. Principles of Problem-Based Learning
The main principle of problem-based learning is the use of real problems as a means for students to develop knowledge and simultaneously developing critical thinking skills and problem solving abilities. The real problem is that there are problems in daily life and beneficial if done directly.

Selection or determination of the real problems of this can be done by teachers and students who adapted certain basic competencies. The problem is open (open-ended problems), the problem that has many answers or solving strategies that encourage curiosity learners to identify strategies and the solutions. The problem also is not well structured (ill-structured) that can not be solved directly by applying a formula or a particular strategy, but need more information to understand and need to combine several strategies or even their own creative strategies to solve them.

Curriculum 2013 according Permendikbud number 81a in 2013 on the implementation of the curriculum, holds the view that the knowledge base can not be moved away from the teacher to the learner. Learners are subjects that have the ability to actively seek, process, construct, and use knowledge. In the Problem-Based Learning is a learning center students (student-centered), while the teacher acts as a facilitator who facilitates learners to actively solve problems and build knowledge in pairs or in groups (collaboration among learners)

4. Steps Problem-Based Learning
Basically, Problem-Based Learning activity begins with students to solve real problems specified or agreed. Problem-solving process implies the formation of learner skills in problem solving and critical thinking as well as well as forming new knowledge. The process is done in stages or learning syntax presented in Table 1 below.
Syntax or Step-by-Step Problem-Based Learning

Activity Stage Teachers and Learners
stage 1
Orient the students to the teacher explains the purpose of learning problems and logistical means or necessary. Teachers motivate students to engage in real problem-solving activities selected or determined

Stage 2
Organizing students to learn Teachers help students learn to define and organize tasks related to the problem that has been oriented in the previous stage.

Stage 3
Guide the investigation of individual and group Teachers encourage learners to gather appropriate information and carry out experiments to gain clarity necessary to resolve the problem.

Stage 4
Developing and presenting the work of teachers help learners to share tasks and preparing a work plan or appropriate as a result of solving the problem in the form of reports, video, or model.

Stage 5
Analyze and evaluate the process of problem solving Teachers help learners to reflect or evaluation of the problem solving process is done

The stages PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING that can potentially be implemented systematically develop students' ability in solving problems and also can master the knowledge in accordance with certain basic competencies. The stages PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING can be integrated with the activities of the scientific approach to match the characteristics of learning in the curriculum in 2013 as indicated on Permendikbud No. 81a In 2013, these activities were observed, inquire, gather information / experiment, associate / process information, and communicate.

5. Examples of Problem-Based Learning Activity
In accordance with Permendikbud No. 65 of 2013 on a standard process, the learning activity consists of three stages, namely preliminary, core, and cover. Stages 1 PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING can be categorized as part of the preliminary stages. While the stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 are the core stage. However, stage 5 can also be categorized as closing stages. In learning activities, some students may require reinforcement / enrichment and some others require remedial. Strengthening activities / enrichment is done to strengthen and enrich the understanding of learners who have reached or exceeded the minimum competency achievement. Enrichment can be in the form of project tasks performed outside of school hours. On the other hand, the activities undertaken to facilitate and assist learners who have not achieved mastery of specified minimum competency.

Here is an example of Problem-Based Learning activity up, especially in science subjects, which consisted of a preliminary stage, the core, and cover.

a. Introduction
At this stage, conducted Phase 1 syntax Problem-Based Learning, which is to orient students to the problem. The problem can be presented in the form of drawings, diagrams, short film, or a power point. For example, in science lessons, the problems associated with the activity pendiduk household waste illegally into the surrounding environment. After students watch (observe) the grain problem, the teacher asking leading questions (inquire) to encourage students to predict or allegations filed (hypotheses) about the impact of the disposal of household waste, such as detergents, to living organisms. Furthermore, teachers inform learning objectives.

b. core
Core stages include stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 in the syntax Problem-Based Learning.

1) Organize students to study (Phase 2)
a. Through a question and answer (inquire), the teacher reminded the steps or the scientific method. The scientific method can be presented in chart form.
b. The teacher organizes students to learn in the form of small group discussions. The teacher can explain in more detail the alternatives strategies to solve the problem is determined, which is associated with waste disposal impact on the lives of organisms.
c. Teachers guide students individually or in groups in designing experiments to test the conjecture (hypothesis) is proposed. Each group presents hypotheses and design experiments to get advice from other groups as well as from the teacher. Other groups and teachers can provide assessment and advice on the presentation. The group is considered the most well rewarded.

2) Guiding individual and group investigation (Phase 3)
a. The teacher gives guidance to students to conduct investigations or experiments. The guidance includes the collection of information relating to the issues raised in this matter, for example, about the effect of detergent on the lives of organisms and other factors that influence it.
b. The group of students conducted experiments based on designs that they have made with the guidance of a teacher (experimenting). Experimental device is put in place that is easily observed every day. Teachers guide the group who are having trouble.

3) Develop and present the work (Phase 4)
Learners in groups to develop appropriate research reports that have been agreed upon format. Selected group presented the results of experiments (mengomunikasi). Each group was given 10 minutes. Another group of teachers responding to the presentations and provide feedback.

4) Analyze and evaluate the problem-solving process (Stage 5)
a) Teachers with students to analyze and evaluate the problem-solving process that is presented each group as well as to all learning activities undertaken.
b) The teacher provides reinforcement (associate) related to the acquisition of knowledge or a particular concept, such as detergent effects on living organisms.

c. Closing
With the guidance of the teacher, the learner concludes the discussion. Teachers can conduct enrichment activities for students who have achieved mastery. Instead, teachers can provide remedial for students who do not achieve mastery.

6. Technique in the Assessment PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING
Actually there is no specific assessment techniques that cater in PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING. It is important that teachers are able to gather information that is valid and reliable assessment. Given the purpose PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING not for the acquisition of a large number of declarative knowledge, then the assessment is not enough only through a written test. In accordance purpose PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING, specifically in the assessment PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING can be aimed to measure problem-solving ability or critical thinking skills.

Assessment of performance is deemed suitable in PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING. Performance assessment enables learners to show what they can do when faced with a real problem situations, so it can be used to measure the potential of students problem solving in addition to the ability of group work. The performance assessment is done in the form of checklists and rating scale.

PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING facilitate learners to develop social skills or skills through a collaborative discussion activities. Such skills can include the skills of cooperation, interpersonal skills, and an active role in the success of the group. Skills can be assessed through observation.

Reading Material
Barrows, H.S.  1996.  “Problem-based learning in medicine and beyond: A brief overview” Dalam Bringing problem-based learning to higher education: Theory and Practice (hal 3-12).  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Delisle, R. (1997). How to Use Problem_Based Learning In the Classroom. Alexandria, Virginia USA: ASCD.
Gijselaers, W.H.  1996. “Connecting problem-based practices with educational theory.” Dalam Bringing problem-based learning to higher education: Theory and Practice (hal 13-21).  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Nur, M. 2011. Pembelajaran Berdasarkan Masalah. Surabaya: PSMS Unesa.
Tim Sertifikasi Unesa. 2010. Modul Pembelajaran Inovatif. Surabaya: PLPG Unesa.
Arend, R.I. 2001. Learning to Teach, 5th Ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill Company, Inc.
Baldwin, A.L. 1967. Theories of Child Development. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Carin, A.A. & Sund, R.B. 1975. Teaching Science trough Discovery, 3rd Ed. Columbus: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Company.
Carin, A.A. 1993. Teaching Science Through Discovery. ( 7th. ed. ) New York: Maxwell Macmillan International.
Muller, U.,  Carpendale, J.I.M.,  Smith, L. 2009.  The Cambridge Companion to PIAGET. Cambridge University Press.
Nur, M. 1998. Teori-teori Perkembangan. Surabaya: Institut Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan.
Nur, M. & Wikandari, P.R. 2000. Pengajaran Berpusat Kepada Siswa Dan Pendekatan Konstruktivis Dalam Pengajaran. Surabaya : Universitas Negeri Surabaya University Press.
Osborne, R.J. & Wittrock, M.C. 1985. Learning Science: A Generative Process, Science Education, 64, 4: 489-503.
Sund, R.B. & Trowbridge, L.W. 1973. Teaching Science by Inquiry in the Secondary School, 3rd Ed. Columbus: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Company.
Sutherland, P. 1992. Cognitive Development Today: Piaget and his Critics. London: Paul Chapman Publishing Ltd.

= Read Too =

Blog, Updated at: 04.09.00

2 komentar:

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