Posted by PENDIDIKAN KEWARGANEGARAAN on Sabtu, 04 Januari 2014

1. Definition of Project Based Learning
Kleil, et al (2009) defines project-based learning (project-based learning) as "the instructional strategy of empowering learners to pursue knowledge on Reviews their own content and demonstrate Reviews their new understandings through a variety of presentation modes". Meanwhile, Intel Corporation (2007) provides a definition of the project-based learning as "an instructional models that Involves students in investigations of compelling problems that culminate in authentic products". A more complete definition of the project-based learning can be found in the opinion of Barell, Baron, and Grant which gives the sense of a Project Based Learning "using authentic, real-world project, based on a highly motivating and engaging question, task, or problem to teach students academic content in the context of working cooperatively to solve the problem "(in Bender, 2012).
Referring to some of the above definition, it is understood that the Project Based Learning is a learning strategy that uses the project / activity as a means of learning to achieve competency attitudes, knowledge and skills. The emphasis lies on the learning activities of learners to solve the problem by applying the skills of researching, analyzing, creating, learning to present their products based on real experience. This strategy allows pesera students to work independently and in groups in mengkostruksikan authentic products sourced from the real problems in everyday life .

Therefore, Project Based Learning is a learning strategy that uses problems as a first step in integrating new knowledge based on real experience. Project Based Learning is being systematically involving learners in the learning attitudes, knowledge and skills through investigation in the design of the product. Project Based Learning is an innovative learning strategy, which emphasizes contextual learning through activities complex. Implementation of project-based learning gives students the opportunity to think critically and develop their creativity through the development of initiatives to produce tangible products such as goods or services.

In Project Based Learning, learners are actively engaged in solving problems assigned by the teacher in the form of a project. Learners actively manage their learning with real-life work that produces real products. Project Based Learning can reduce competition in the classroom and directing learners more collaborative than working alone. In addition, Project Based Learning can also be done through working independently construct their learning through knowledge and new skills, and make it happen in real products.

2. Principle is the principle of Project Based Learning
As already diurakan above that means learning to achieve competence in the use of Project Based Learning project tasks as a learning strategy. The students work in the real, to solve problems in the real world that can produce a solution in the form of a product or the work of a real or realistic. The underlying principle is a project-based learning:
a) Learner-centered learning which involves tasks in real life to enrich learning.
b) The task of the project emphasizes on research activities based on a theme or topic which has been determined in the study.
c) Investigations or experiments done authentically and produce real products that have been analyzed and developed based on themes / topics are arranged in the form of products (reports or works). Products, statements or results which are then communicated to the work of comments and feedback for improvement next project.

3 Benefits of Project Based Learning
Project-based learning is an instructional strategy that focuses on learners in problem-solving activities and other meaningful tasks. Implementation of Project Based Learning can provide opportunities for students to work on a given task construct teacher whose top can produce works of learners. Benefits of Project Based Learning are as follows:
a) Acquire new knowledge and skills in learning
b) Improve the ability of learners in problem solving.
c) Creating a more active learners in solving complex problems with real products results in the form of goods or services.
d) Develop and enhance the skills of students in managing resources / materials / tools to accomplish the task.
e) Enhance collaboration of learners especially on Project Based Learning which is a group.

Effective project-based learning, according to Klein, et al (2009) should have the following characteristics:
• Leads students to investigate important ideas and questions
• Is framed around an inquiry process
• Is differentiated According to student needs and interests
• Is driven by the production and presentation of independent student rather than teacher delivery of information
• Requires the use of creative thinking, critical thinking, and information skills to investigate, draw
• conclusions about, and create content
• Connects to the real world and authentic problems and issues

4. Step-by-step Project-Based Learning
In Project Based Learning, learners are given tu¬gas to develop a theme / topic in the learning by doing project activities realistic. In addition, the implementation of project-based learning is to encourage the growth of creativity, independence, responsibility, self-confidence, as well as critical thinking and analytical learners.

Step Project Based Learning is as follows:
a) determination of project
In this step, the students determine the theme / topic of projects based on project assignments given by the teacher. Learners are given the opportunity to select / define which projects the group will be doing either independently or with a note not to deviate from the task set by the teacher.

b) The design steps of project completion
Learners design measures activity completion of the project from start to finish along with its management. This project contains the design activity rules in the implementation of the project tasks, the selection of activities that can support the tasks of the project, the integration of a variety of possible completion of project tasks, resource planning / materials / tools that can support the completion of project tasks, and cooperation among group members.

c) Preparation of project implementation schedule
Students under the guidance of teachers to schedule all the activities that have been designed. How long the project should be completed step by step.

d. Completion of the project with the facilitation and monitoring of teacher
This step is a step in the implementation of the project design has been made​​. Activities that can be done in the project activity of which is to a) read, b) researching, c) observation, d) interviews, e) recording, f) works of art, g) visited the project object, or h) internet access. The teacher is responsible for monitoring the activities of learners in the process of doing the task of project start up to completion of the project. In the monitoring activity, the teacher made ​​rubric that will be able to record the activity of learners in completing project tasks.

e. Preparation of reports and presentation / publication of results of the project
The results of the project in the form of a product, whether it be paper products, works of art, or technology work / craft presented and / or published to other learners and teachers or community in the form of exhibits learning products.

f. Evaluation process and results of the project
Teachers and learners at the end of the learning process to reflect on the activities and results of the project tasks. The process of reflection on project assignments can be done individually or in groups. In the evaluation phase, the learners the opportunity to express his experience of completing project tasks developed during the discussion to improve the performance of project tasks completed. At this stage also conducted feedback on the process and products have been produced.

Reading Material
Barrows, H.S.  1996.  “Problem-based learning in medicine and beyond: A brief overview” Dalam Bringing problem-based learning to higher education: Theory and Practice (hal 3-12).  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Delisle, R. (1997). How to Use Problem_Based Learning In the Classroom. Alexandria, Virginia USA: ASCD.
Gijselaers, W.H.  1996. “Connecting problem-based practices with educational theory.” Dalam Bringing problem-based learning to higher education: Theory and Practice (hal 13-21).  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Nur, M. 2011. Pembelajaran Berdasarkan Masalah. Surabaya: PSMS Unesa.
Tim Sertifikasi Unesa. 2010. Modul Pembelajaran Inovatif. Surabaya: PLPG Unesa.
Arend, R.I. 2001. Learning to Teach, 5th Ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill Company, Inc.
Baldwin, A.L. 1967. Theories of Child Development. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Carin, A.A. & Sund, R.B. 1975. Teaching Science trough Discovery, 3rd Ed. Columbus: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Company.
Carin, A.A. 1993. Teaching Science Through Discovery. ( 7th. ed. ) New York: Maxwell Macmillan International.
Muller, U.,  Carpendale, J.I.M.,  Smith, L. 2009.  The Cambridge Companion to PIAGET. Cambridge University Press.
Nur, M. 1998. Teori-teori Perkembangan. Surabaya: Institut Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan.
Nur, M. & Wikandari, P.R. 2000. Pengajaran Berpusat Kepada Siswa Dan Pendekatan Konstruktivis Dalam Pengajaran. Surabaya : Universitas Negeri Surabaya University Press.
Osborne, R.J. & Wittrock, M.C. 1985. Learning Science: A Generative Process, Science Education, 64, 4: 489-503.
Sund, R.B. & Trowbridge, L.W. 1973. Teaching Science by Inquiry in the Secondary School, 3rd Ed. Columbus: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Company.

Sutherland, P. 1992. Cognitive Development Today: Piaget and his Critics. London: Paul Chapman Publishing Ltd.

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Blog, Updated at: 03.55.00

2 komentar:

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