Scientific Approach in Learning

Posted by PENDIDIKAN KEWARGANEGARAAN on Thursday, January 2, 2014

1 Basic Concepts Scientific Approach
a. definition
Learning the scientific approach is that the learning process is designed so that learners are actively mengonstruk concept, law or principle through the stages observed (to identify or find the problem), formulate problems, propose or formulate hypotheses, collect data with a variety of techniques, analyzing the data, draw conclusions and communicate concepts, laws or principles "found". 

Scientific approach is intended to provide insight to students in recognizing, understanding the various materials using a scientific approach, that information can come from anywhere, at any time, do not rely on the information in the direction of the teacher. Therefore, it is expected to create learning conditions that will encourage the learners in finding out from various sources through observation, and not just be told.
The application of scientific approaches in the learning process involves skills such as observing, classifying, measuring, predicting, explaining, and conclude. In carrying out these processes, teacher assistance is needed. However, the teacher must aid decreases with increasing adult student or the higher grade students.




Scientific method is particularly relevant to the three learning theories, namely the theory of Bruner, Piaget, and Vygotsky's theory. Bruner theory of learning is called discovery learning theory. There are four main things related to learning theories of Bruner (in Carin & Sund, 1975). First, only individuals learn and develop his mind when he uses his mind. Second, by performing the cognitive processes in the discovery process, students will acquire the intellectual thrill and satisfaction is intrinsic rewards suatau. Third, the only way that a person can learn the techniques of doing discovery is that it has a chance to do discovery. Fourth, to make the discovery will strengthen memory retention. Four of the above is consistent with the cognitive processes required in learning to use the scientific method.
Piaget's theory, stating that the study related to the formation and development of the schema (plural schemata). The scheme is a cognitive mental structures or structures with which a person is intellectually adapt and coordinate the surrounding environment (Baldwin, 1967). The scheme has never stopped changing, the schemata of a child will develop into adults schemata. The process that leads to changes in schemata called adaptation. The process of formation of this adaptation can be done in two ways: assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation is the cognitive process by which one can integrate stimuli of perception, concepts, laws, principles, or new experiences into existing schemes in mind. Accommodation may include the formation of a new scheme that can match the characteristics of the existing stimulus or modify existing schemes to match the characteristics of the existing stimulus. In the learning necessary to balancing or equilibration between assimilation and accommodation.
Vygotsky, the theory states that learning occurs when students work or study dealing with tasks that have not been studied, but the tasks were still within the range of abilities or tasks that are in a zone of proximal development area is located between the current level of child development are defined as a problem-solving abilities under the guidance of an adult or more capable peers. (Nur and Wikandari, 2000: 4).
Learning the scientific method has the following characteristics:
1) centered on the student.
2) involves the science process skills in constructing the concept, law or principle.
3) involves the cognitive processes of potential in stimulating the development of intellect, especially high-level thinking skills of students.
4) be able to develop the character of students.

b. The purpose of learning the scientific approach
The purpose of learning the scientific approach based on the advantages of the approach. Some tujuanembelajaran the scientific approach are:
1) to improve the ability of intellect, especially high-level thinking skills of students.
2) to establish the ability of the student in solving a problem in a systematic way.
3) the creation of conditions for learning in which students feel that learning is a necessity.
4) obtaining results of high learning.
5) to train students in the communication of ideas, especially in writing a scientific article.
6) to develop the character of students.

c. Learning principles with scientific approach
Some of the principles of scientific approaches in the learning activities are as follows:
1) student-centered learning
2) learning form the students' self-concept
3) avoid the verbal learning
4) learning provides an opportunity for students to assimilate and accommodate the concepts, laws, and principles
5) leads to an increase learning ability of students to think
6) learning increases student motivation and motivation of teachers to teach
7) provides the opportunity for students to practice skills in communication
8) the process of validation of the concepts, laws and principles which students constructed in cognitive structure.

2 common measures of learning with scientific approach
The learning process at all levels of the curriculum in 2013 to be implemented by using a scientific approach (scientific). Step-by-step scientific approach (scientific appoach) in the learning process includes collecting information through observation, question, experiment, and then process the data or information, present data or information, followed by analyzing, reasoning, then concluded, and create. For the subjects, materials, or certain situations, it may be a scientific approach is not always appropriately applied procedurally. In this condition, of course, the learning process must continue to implement the values ​​or scientific nature and avoid the values ​​or non-scientific nature. Scientific approach in the study are presented as follows:
a. Observed (observation)
Method of prioritizing meaningfulness observe the learning process (learning meaningfull). This method has certain advantages, such as the media presents a real object, learners happy and challenged, and easy implementation. The method is very useful for observing the curiosity fulfillment learners. So that the learning process has a high significance. Activity observed in the study as presented in Permendikbud No. 81a, let the teacher opened wide and varied opportunities for students to make observations through the following activities: look, listen, hear, and read. The teacher facilitates the students to make observations, training them to pay attention (see, read, hear) things that are important from an object or objects. As expected competencies are trained seriousness, thoroughness, and look for information.
b. inquire
In observing the activity, the teacher opens wide opportunities for learners to ask questions about what has been seen, listened to, read or seen. Teachers should guide students to be able to ask questions: questions about the observed object to the concrete until Abstra regard to facts, concepts, procedures, or even something more abstract. Factual questions until the question is hypothetical. Of situations in which learners are trained using the questions from the teacher, the teacher still needs help to ask a question to a level where students are able to ask questions independently. Of the two activities generated a number of questions. Through the activities developed curiosity asks learners. The more trained in asking the curiosity can be developed further. Question stretcher became the basis for the search for further information and a variety of specified sources to specified teacher learners, from a single source to source diverse.
The "inquire" in learning activities as presented in Permendikbud No. 81a in 2013, is asking questions about information that is not dIlmu Alamhami knowledge of what is observed or questions to obtain additional information about what is observed (starting from factual questions to the questions that are hypothetical). The competencies expected in this activity is to develop creativity, curiosity, the ability to formulate questions to establish the critical thinking necessary for intelligent life and lifelong learning.
c. collecting Information
The "gathering information" is a follow up of asking. This activity is done by digging and collecting information from various sources through a variety of ways. For that learners can read more books, pay attention to the phenomenon or object that is more accurate, or even do experiments. From these activities a number of the information collected. In Permendikbud Number 81a In 2013, information gathering activities conducted through experimentation, reading sources other than textbooks, observing the objects / events / activities interviews with resource persons and so on. As expected competencies is to develop an attitude conscientious, honest, polite, respect the opinions of others, the ability to communicate, implement the ability to gather information through a variety of ways to learn, develop the habit of learning and lifelong learning.
d. Associate / Process Information / reasoning
The "associate / process information / reasoning" in learning activities as presented in Permendikbud No. 81a in 2013, is to process the information that has been collected both from the results of the limited collecting / experiments and observe the results of the activities and information gathering activities. Processing the information gathered from that is to add breadth and depth to the information processing that are looking for solutions from a variety of sources that have a different opinion to the contrary. This activity is carried out to find the relationship of the information with other information, find patterns of linkage information. As expected competencies is to develop an attitude to be honest, meticulous, disciplined, law-abiding, hard work, ability to implement procedures and inductive and deductive thinking skills in concluding.
This activity is also termed as the activity of reasoning, which is a process of thinking logically and systematically over-the empirical facts that can be observed to obtain a conclusion in the form of knowledge. Make sense in the context of learning activities on the Curriculum 2013 with many scientific approach refers to theories of learning associations or associative learning. The term refers to the association in learning kemamuan associate classify diverse ideas and diverse events to then put it into a fragment of memory. During special events transfer to the brain, stored in a reference to the experience of other events. The experiences that have been stored in memory and related brain interacts with previous experience already available.
e. draw conclusions
Concluded in learning activities with a scientific approach is a continuation of the activities of process data or information. Having found a link between information and find various patterns of these linkages, then together in a single group, or individually to make a conclusion.
f. communicating
In scientific approach teachers are expected to provide opportunities for learners to communicate what they have learned. This activity can be done by writing down or telling what is found in information-seeking activities, associate and find patterns. These results disampikan in class and rated by teachers as the study of students or groups of students such. Activity "communicate" in learning activities as presented in Permendikbud No. 81a in 2013, is conveying the observations, conclusions based on the results of the analysis of oral, written, or other media.
The competencies expected in this activity is to develop the attitude of honest, conscientious, tolerance, the ability to think systematically, to express their opinions briefly and clearly, and to develop good language skills and correct.

3 The application of the scientific approach to learning
Learning activities include three main activities, namely the preliminary activities, core activities, and closing activities. Preliminary event aims to create an atmosphere of effective early learning that enables students can follow the learning process well. For example, when the start of learning, the teacher greets the children excited and happy tone (say hello), check the presence of the student and ask the student's absence if one is not present.
In the scientific method is the main purpose of the preliminary activities solidify students' understanding of the concepts that have been mastered with regard to the subject matter that will be studied by the students. In this activity the teacher should strive for students who do not understand a concept can understand these concepts, while students who had misconceptions, such errors can be eliminated. In the preliminary activities, suggested teacher showed the phenomenon or event "strange" or "odd" (discrepant event) that can inspire the emergence of questions on students.
Core activity is the main activity in the learning process or in the process of mastery learning experience (learning experience) students. Core activity in learning is a process of formation of the student experience and capabilities programmatically implemented within a certain time duration. Core activities in the scientific method is intended to terkonstruksinya concept, law or principle by students with the help of the teacher melalaui activity measures given in advance.
Cover activities aimed at two main things. First, the validation of the concept, or principle of law which has been is constructed by students. Secondly, the subject matter is mastered enrichment students
Examples of preliminary activities, core activities, and closing activities are given below.
Examples of preliminary activities:
1 Saying greetings
2 Teacher recalls the concepts that have been learned by the students associated with the new material that will be taught. For example in maple NATURAL SCIENCES, the teacher asks the concept of a solution and its components before learning acid-base material. For SOCIAL SCIENCES, eg using apperception about the floods that occur frequently. Where, when, and why it could happen, who are often the victims, what the flood affected people in the face of the disaster.
3 Delivering the learning objectives.

Examples of Core Activities
1 Observe:
In maple NATURAL SCIENCES, teachers ask students to observe a phenomenon. For example in maple NATURAL SCIENCES teacher asks the students to observe the nature of the solution obtained from extracts of star fruit or tomatoes. The phenomenon can also be given in the form of video. In maple SOCIAL SCIENCES example is the phenomenon that is observed images (photographs, slides) about the forest bare, heavy rain, people littering, the river overflowed, flooding large. slide, or a video clip about the flood disaster somewhere.
2. inquire:
In maple NATURAL SCIENCES, students ask questions about a phenomenon. For example, students questioned "Why star fruit extract solution or tomatoes taste sweet and salty". For example in maple SOCIAL SCIENCES is "Are the causes and effects of flooding could occur in space and time are the same or different?"
3. reasoning to propose a hypothesis:
For example, in maple NATURAL SCIENCES students proposed that taste sweet and sour at the solution enkstrak star fruit or tomatoes caused by a substance that has a sweet taste and a substance that has a sour taste. The students' opinion is a hypothesis. Hypothetical example in maple SOCIAL SCIENCES is Flood (due) and deforestation (cause) can be: a) occurred at the same place b) occurred in different places.
4 Collecting Data:
In maple NATURAL SCIENCES, student teachers collect data or provide data on the components contained in the extract solution of star fruit or tomatoes.
5. Analyzing the data:
Students analyze the data provided by the teacher. Analysis of the data in SOCIAL SCIENCE, for example, students are encouraged to read pages 2-6 students on concepts of space, time, connectivity, and social interaction. These concepts associated with information or baseline data, questions and hypotheses, and the data collected.
6 Drawing conclusions
In maple NATURAL SCIENCES, students draw conclusions based on the results of the analysis they do. For example, the students concluded that the sweet taste in the solution of star fruit or fruit extract tomato caused by the presence of sugar, while the sour taste is caused by the presence of acid. Examples of the conclusions drawn in the example SOCIAL SCIENCE rain causes flooding in Jakarta, Bogor showed an association antarruang and time.
7 Communicating:
In this step, students can submit their work orally or in writing, for example through group presentations, discussion, and question and answer.

Examples of Closing Activities:
1 In NATURAL SCIENCES maple, for example, teachers ask students to express the concept, principle or theory that has been is constructed by students.
In SOCIAL SCIENCE maple, for example, students were asked to describe examples of linkages antarruang and time, for example the relationship between villages and cities.
2 In maple and maple NATURAL SCIENCES another, teachers can ask students to increase their understanding of the concepts, principles or theories that have been studied from textbooks that are relevant or other resources. Examples in maple NATURAL SCIENCES above can also be used in maple SOCIAL SCIENCE.
3 In maple NATURAL SCIENCES, SOCIAL SCIENCES maple, maple and others, the teacher can give some websites on the internet relating to the concepts, principles or theories that have been learned by the student, then the teacher asks the students to access these sites.

4. technique in the assessment of learning with a scientific approach
Assessment on learning the scientific approach includes process assessment, product assessment, and attitude assessment. Assessment on 3 aspects can be explained as follows.
a. Or skills assessment process, conducted through observation as students work group, individual work, discussions, presentations or when using performance observation sheet.
b. Product assessment is understanding the concepts, principles, and laws made ​​by a written test.
c. Attitude assessment, through observation as students work group, individual work, discussions, presentations or when using the observation sheet attitudes.

Reading Material
Barrows, H.S.  1996.  “Problem-based learning in medicine and beyond: A brief overview” Dalam Bringing problem-based learning to higher education: Theory and Practice (hal 3-12).  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Delisle, R. (1997). How to Use Problem_Based Learning In the Classroom. Alexandria, Virginia USA: ASCD.
Gijselaers, W.H.  1996. “Connecting problem-based practices with educational theory.” Dalam Bringing problem-based learning to higher education: Theory and Practice (hal 13-21).  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Nur, M. 2011. Pembelajaran Berdasarkan Masalah. Surabaya: PSMS Unesa.
Tim Sertifikasi Unesa. 2010. Modul Pembelajaran Inovatif. Surabaya: PLPG Unesa.
Arend, R.I. 2001. Learning to Teach, 5th Ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill Company, Inc.
Baldwin, A.L. 1967. Theories of Child Development. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Carin, A.A. & Sund, R.B. 1975. Teaching Science trough Discovery, 3rd Ed. Columbus: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Company.
Carin, A.A. 1993. Teaching Science Through Discovery. ( 7th. ed. ) New York: Maxwell Macmillan International.
Muller, U.,  Carpendale, J.I.M.,  Smith, L. 2009.  The Cambridge Companion to PIAGET. Cambridge University Press.
Nur, M. 1998. Teori-teori Perkembangan. Surabaya: Institut Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan.
Nur, M. & Wikandari, P.R. 2000. Pengajaran Berpusat Kepada Siswa Dan Pendekatan Konstruktivis Dalam Pengajaran. Surabaya : Universitas Negeri Surabaya University Press.
Osborne, R.J. & Wittrock, M.C. 1985. Learning Science: A Generative Process, Science Education, 64, 4: 489-503.
Sund, R.B. & Trowbridge, L.W. 1973. Teaching Science by Inquiry in the Secondary School, 3rd Ed. Columbus: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Company.
Sutherland, P. 1992. Cognitive Development Today: Piaget and his Critics. London: Paul Chapman Publishing Ltd.


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2 komentar:

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