KINDS OF TEACHING METHOD

Posted by PENDIDIKAN KEWARGANEGARAAN on Selasa, 22 Maret 2016

KINDS OF TEACHING METHOD
Understanding teaching method
The method according to Djamaluddin and Abdullah Aly in Kapita Selekta Islamic Education, (1999: 114) comes from the meta word means through, and hodos road. So the method is the path that must be passed to achieve a goal. Meanwhile, according to the Ministry of Religious Affairs in the book Islamic Religious Education Methodology (2001: 19) Method means the work system that bersistem to facilitate the implementation of an activity in order to achieve the goals specified. According to WJS. Poerwadarminta in Big Indonesian Dictionary, (1999: 767) Method is a way that has been regular and well thought to achieve a purpose. Based on the above definition, the authors can take the conclusion that the method is the way or the way someone to follow to achieve the expected goals.

Teaching is a very complex undertaking, making it difficult to determine how to actually teach good. Method is one of the tools to achieve the goal. While learning is an activity undertaken by the teacher in such a way that the behavior of students changed to a better direction (Darsono, 2000: 24). According to Ahmadi (1997: 52) method of learning is a knowledge of the ways of teaching used by teachers or instructors. Another understanding says that the method of learning is a presentation technique that is mastered by teachers to teach or present learning materials to students in the classroom, either individually or in groups so that the lesson can be absorbed.


TEACHING METHOD


As for the intended learning According to Gagne, Briggs, and wagner in Udin S. Winataputra (2008) is a series of activities designed to enable the learning process in students. Meanwhile, according to Law No. 20 of 2003 on Sisdiknas, learning is the process of interaction of learners with educators and learning resources in a learning environment.

So learning is a process of interaction of learners with educators and learning resources in a learning environment. Learning is an aid provided by educators in order to occur the process of acquisition of knowledge and knowledge. So it can be said Learning theory is an attempt to describe how humans learn, thus helping us all understand the complex inhern process of learning.


KINDS OF TEACHING METHOD (2)


Based on the above description can be concluded that the intended learning method is the way or path taken by the teacher to deliver learning materials so that learning objectives can be achieved. Can also be concluded that the learning method is a learning strategy used by the teacher as a medium to achieve the learning objectives that have been set. This encourages a teacher to find the right method in the delivery of the material in order to be well absorbed by the students. Teaching effectively depends heavily on the selection and use of teaching methods. 

Different Methods of Learning 
Teaching Method of many kinds and types, each type of learning method has its own weaknesses and advantages, not using one kind of method alone, combining the use of several methods that are still widely used in teaching and learning process. According to Nana Sudjana (in the book Basics of Teaching and Learning Process, 1989: 78-86), there are various methods in learning, namely Lecture method, Question Answer Method, Discussion Method, Recitation Method, Group Work Method, Demonstration Method and Experiment , Method of sociodrama (role-playing), problem solving method, team method, drill, field-trip, community survey, and simulation method. For more details, the authors describe several types of Teaching Method as follows:

Lecture method
The lecture method is an oral narrative. This method is not always bad when its use is properly prepared, supported by tools and media, and taking into account the limits of its possible use. According to Ibrahim, (2003: 106) lecture method is a way of teaching used to convey information or information or description of a subject matter and oral problem

Lecture method


This method is often used by teachers to convey lessons when faced with a considerable number of students, but it should be noted that this method will work well if supported by other methods, such as question and answer method, practice and others. Teachers should be really prepared in this case, because if delivered only lectures from the beginning of the lesson to completion, students will be bored and less interested in following the lesson, even students can not understand what is being discussed by the teacher.

a) Excess lecture method
1) The teacher is more in control of the class.
2) Easy to organize the seating / class.
3) Can be followed by a large number of students.
4) Easy to prepare and implement.
5) Teachers easily explain the lessons well.

b) Weakness of lecture method
1) Easily become verbalism (meaning of words).
2) The visual becomes loss, the auditif (hear) is more accustomed to accept.
3) Boring if always used and too long.
4) It is difficult to conclude that students understand and are interested in their lecture. 

Question and answer method 
The Q & A method is a teaching method that allows for direct communication that is ywo way traffic, because at the same time there is a dialogue between teachers and students. The teacher asks the students to answer or the students ask the teacher to answer. In this communication seen a direct mutual relationship between teacher and student.

Question and answer method 


Question and answer method can also be interpreted as a teaching method that allows for direct communication that is two-way because at the same time there is a dialogue between teachers and students. The teacher asks the students to answer or the students ask the teacher to answer. 

a) Excess question and answer method 
1) Questions can attract and focus students' attention.
2) Stimulate students to train and develop thinking power, including memory power.
3) Develop the courage and skills of students in answering and expressing opinions.

b) Weakness of question and answer method 
1) Students feel afraid when less teachers can encourage students to dare by creating an atmosphere that is not tense.
2) It is not easy to create questions that match the level of thinking and easy to understand students.
3) Often wastes a lot of time.
4) Lack of time to question all students.

Discussion methods 
The method of discussion is exchanging information, opinion, and experience elements regularly with a view to obtaining a clearer and more clear understanding of the issues or topics being discussed. 


Discussion methods


Thus, the Discussion   Method is a method of sharing information, opinion and experience elements regularly in order to gain a clearer, clearer and more thorough understanding of something or to prepare and finalize a common decision. Therefore the discussion is not a debate, because debate is a war of people argue argument, compete and the ability of persuasion to win their own understanding. In the discussion each person is expected to contribute so that the whole group returns with a shared understanding.

a) Excess discussion method 
1) Stimulate the creativity of students in the form of new ideas, ideas, initiatives and breakthroughs in problem solving.
2) Develop mutual respect for the opinions of others.
3) Broaden the horizons.
4) Fostering to get used to deliberation in solving a problem.

b) Weakness of discussion method
1) It takes a long time.
2) Can not be used for large groups.
3) Participants receive limited information.
4) Controlled by people who like to talk or want to stand out.


Method of demonstration 
Methods of demonstration and experimentation   are very effective teaching methods, because they help the students to find answers by their own efforts based on the correct facts. Demonstration is a teaching method that shows how the process of something happening.

Method of demonstration 


Demonstration method is a teaching method that is quite effective because it helps students to obtain answers by observing a particular process or event. 

a) Advantages of demonstration methods 
1) Avoiding verbalism. 
2) Students more easily understand what is learned. 
3) The teaching process is more interesting.
4) Students are stimulated to actively observe, adapt between theory to reality and try to do it on their own.

b) Weakness of demonstration methods 
1) Require special teacher skills. 
2) Lack of facilities. 
3) It takes a long time. 

Experimental Method 
Experimental method  this method is not just a teaching method but also a method of thinking, because in Experiments can use other methods starting from pulling data to draw conclusions.



Experimental Method 


The experimental method is a way of presenting a lesson, in which students experiment with experiencing and proving themselves something learned (Djamarah, 2002: 95). 
Methods of demonstration and experimentation   are very effective teaching methods, because they help the students to find answers by their own efforts based on the correct facts. Demonstration is a teaching method that shows how the process of something happening.
a). Excess experimental method 
1) Make students more trustworthy of truth or conclusions based on experiments. 
2) Fostering students to make new breakthroughs. 
3) The results of valuable experiments can be exploited for the prosperity of mankind. 

b) Weakness of experimental methods
1) Tend to fit the field of science and technology.
2) Difficulties in the facility.
3) Demand thoroughness, patience, and fortitude.
4) Every experiment does not always give the expected result.

Exercise method (drill) 
Exercise method is a teaching technique that encourages students to carry out an exercise activity in order to have a higher dexterity or skill than what is learned. 
a) Excess training methods
1) To gain motor skills.
2) To gain mental prowess
3) To obtain proficiency in the form of an association made.
4) Establishment of habits and increase the accuracy and speed of implementation.
5) Utilization of habits that do not require concentration.
6) Formation of more automated habits.



Exercise method (drill) 


b) Weakness of training methods.
1) Inhibit student talent and initiative.
2) Make static adjustments to the environment.
3) Monoton, easily boring.
4) Establish rigid habits.
5) Can cause verbalism.


Assignment Method (Recitation) 
The method of recitation is a method of presenting the material in which the teacher assigns a specific task for the student to do the learning activities. 
A. Excess recitation method 
1) Stimulate students in carrying out individual learning activities as well as groups.
2) Can develop independence.
3) Foster student responsibility and discipline.
4) Develop student creativity.

B. Weakness of recitation method 
1) Difficult to control. 
2) Specific active group assignments of particular students. 
3) It is difficult to assign tasks that match individual differences. 
4) Brings boredom. 

Travel Methods 
Metode karyawisata (Field-trip), karyawisata di sini berarti kunjungan di luar kelas. Jadi karyawisata di atas tidak mengambil tempat yang jauh dari sekolah dan tidak memerlukan waktu yang lama. Karyawisata dalam waktu yang lama dan tempat yang jauh disebut study tour.



Travel Methods 

 
Through this method the students are invited to visit certain places outside the school. Places to be visited and things that need to be observed have been planned in advance, and after the activities of the students are required to make a report. 
A. The advantages of the field trip method 
1) Have the principle of modern teaching by utilizing the real environment. 
2) Creating relevance between what is learned and needs in the community. 
3) Stimulate student creativity. 
4) The subject matter is more extensive and actual. 

B. Weakness of field trip method 
1) Lack of facilities. 
2) Need careful planning.
3) Need coordination so as not to spill over time.
4) Ignoring the element of study.
5) Difficulty organizing a lot of students.

Team Teaching Methods
Team teaching method, is a method of teaching two or more teachers working together to teach a group of students, so the class faced by several teachers.The team system of many kinds, because for a team is not always a formal teacher, but can involve outsiders who are deemed necessary in accordance with the skills we need.

Sociodrama Method 
Methods used to teach values ​​and solve problems encountered in social relationships with people in the family, school and community. In the execution of the students are given a certain role and perform the role and discuss it in class.(Ibrahim, 2003: 107). In the execution of the students are given a certain role and perform the role and discuss it in class.(Ibrahim, 2003: 107). 



Sociodrama Method 




A. Excess sosiodrama method 
1) Train students to train, understand and remember the contents of materials to be raided. 
2) To train students to take initiative and to be creative. 
3) Fostering talent. 
4) Growing and fostering cooperation.
5) Get the habit to share responsibility.
6) Fostering students' grammar.

B. Weakness of sociodrama method
1) Less creative for children who do not participate in the drama.
2) It takes a lot of time.
3) Requires a large place.
4) Annoying other classes because of the noises.

Simulation Method
The simulation method, the simulation comes from the word simulate which means to pretend or act as if. The word simulation means mock or pretense.Thus, the simulation in the teaching method is referred to as a way to explain something (learning material) through the process of imitation behavior or role play about a behavior that is done as if in real circumstances.


Simulation Method



a)  Excess Simulation Method 
There are several advantages by using simulation as teaching method, such as:
1.      Simulation can be used as a stock for students in the face of the actual situation later; Both in family life, society, and face the world of work.
2.      Simulation can develop student's krwativity, because through simulation students are given the opportunity to play a role according to the simulated topic.
3.      Simulations can foster students' courage and confidence.
4.      Enrich the knowledge, attitudes and skills needed to deal with problematic social situations.
5.      Simulation can increase students' passion in learning process.

b)  Weakness of Simulation Method 
Besides having advantages, the simulation also has weaknesses, including:
1.     Experience gained through simulation is not always appropriate and in line with reality in the field.
2. Unfavorable     management. Often simulation serve as a means of entertainment, so that the learning objectives become neglected.
3.     Psychological factors such as shame and fear often affect students in simulation.


Factors Affecting Teaching Method
In carrying out a learning must begin with learning planning activities. Planning has an important function to make learning more focused. In making learning plans, many aspects must be considered by the teacher. Therefore, for the implementation of learning can run well and can achieve the expected goals, then in preparing learning design need to consider the factors that influence the selection of Teaching Method. In the process of teaching and learning teachers should always look for new ways to adjust their teaching to the situation at hand.The methods used should vary to avoid saturation in students. However, this varied method will not be profitable if it does not fit the situation.

The following are the factors that influence the selection of Teaching Method, among others:

a. Students or learners 
Selection of a learning method, must adjust the level of student education.Considerations that emphasize the difference in education level is on the ability of learners, whether it is able to think abstract or not. The application of a simple and complex method is certainly very different, and both are related to the level of ability to think and behave learners at every level
In the classroom the teacher will deal with a number of children with different life backgrounds. Their social status also varies. Likewise with gender and posture.In short from the physical aspect there is always a difference and equality in each student. While from the intellectual point of view, there is a difference that is shown from the fast and slow response of the students to the stimuli given in teaching and learning activities. Psychological aspects also there are differences that the students are quiet, open, and others. 

b. Learning objectives to be achieved 
Each implementation of learning certainly has a learning objective to be achieved. Implementation of learning aims to learners as learners will gain learning experience and show behavior change, where the changes are positive and long lasting. The sentence can be interpreted that a successful learning is a learning that will not only increase the knowledge of learners but also affect the attitude and way of view of learners to the reality of life.
Learning objectives are the intended goals of each teaching and learning activity. This may affect the selection of methods to be used. The method chosen by the teacher should be in accordance with the level of ability to be filled into each of the students. So the method should be tailored to the learning objectives. 

c. Learning material factor
The subject matter has different depth, breadth, complexity. Learning materials with high difficulty level usually require analysis steps in various level. The analysis can be on a superficial, moderate, or in-depth analysis. Selection of appropriate Teaching Method can provide practical direction to overcome the difficulty level of a learning material.

d. Situation of teaching and learning 
Teaching-learning situations created by teachers are not always the same. So the teacher must choose a teaching method that is appropriate to the created situation. At other times, according to the nature of the material and the ability to be achieved by the goal, the teacher creates a learning environment in groups.So the created situation affects the selection and determination of teaching methods. 

e. Teaching and learning facilities 
Learning facilities serve to facilitate the learning process and meet the needs of the learning process. For schools that already have complete learning facilities, the availability of learning facilities is no longer an obstacle. However, not all schools have learning facilities with the expected standards. These circumstances should not be a barrier for teachers in designing learning that can still reach the learning objectives. In certain circumstances, teachers who have a strong spirit and commitment still able to organize learning interesting, fun, and able to achieve the expected learning objectives.

Facilities are the things that affect the selection and determination of teaching methods. Facility is the completeness that support children's learning in school.Complete study facilities will influence the choice of teaching methods. 

f. Factors allocation of learning time.
Selection of appropriate Teaching Method should also take into account the availability of time. A good study plan is the use of time allocations that are calculated in detail, so that learning runs dynamically, no time is wasted without meaning. The opening, core, and closing activities are arranged systematically.In the core activities that include the exploration - elaboration - confirmation stage, taking part of the time with the largest portion compared to the opening and closing activities.

g. Teacher. 
The teacher education background is recognized to affect competence. Lack of mastery of various types of methods becomes an obstacle in choosing and determining methods. Moreover, do not have adequate teaching experience.But there are also appropriate choosing it but in its implementation encountered obstacles due to personality labilnya and shallow mastery over the methods used. 

Selection Criteria of Learning Method
Criteria for selection of Teaching Method are:
1. The character (character) of the teacher.
2. Level of intellectual and social development of children.
3. School facilities available.
4. Master's Ability Level.
5. The nature and purpose of the subject matter.
6. Learning time.
7. The classroom atmosphere.
8. Context of learning destination domain.

Meanwhile, according to Slameto (2003: 98) selection criteria of Teaching Method are:
a. The purpose of teaching, the behavior expected to be shown students after the teaching and learning process. 
b. Teaching materials, ie materials presented in teaching in the form of facts that require different methods of methods used to teach materials in the form of concepts, procedures or rules. 
c. Large class (number of classes), ie the number of students who take classes in the class in question. Classes with 5-10 students require different teaching methods than the class with 50-100 students. 
d. The ability of students, namely the ability of students to capture and develop teaching materials that are taught. This depends a lot on the level of maturity students both mental, physical and intellectual. 
e. The ability of teachers, namely the ability to use various types of optimal teaching methods. 
f. Available facilities, materials or tools and other facilities can be used to improve teaching effectiveness. 
g. The time available, the amount of time planned or allocated to present the prescribed teaching materials. For a lot of material to be presented in a short time requires a different method with relatively little presentation material but relatively large presentation time. 

Ahmadi (1997: 53) suggested the conditions that must be considered in the use of teaching methods are: 
1. Teaching methods should be able to generate student's motives, interests or passions. 
2. Teaching methods should ensure the development of student personality activities. 
3. Teaching methods should be able to provide opportunities for students to realize the work. 
4. Teaching methods should be able to stimulate students' desire to learn more, explore and innovate (renewal). 
5. Teaching methods should be able to educate students in their own learning techniques and how to gain knowledge through personal effort. 
6. Teaching methods should be able to eliminate the presentation of a verbal character and replace it with experience or real situation and aim. 
7. Teaching methods should be able to instill and develop the desired values ​​and attitudes in the habit of working well in everyday life. 

Teachers as one source of learning are obliged to provide a creative learning environment for the learning activities of students in the classroom. One of the activities that must be done is to determine and select the method. A method used by teachers to teach must be completely mastered. So that at the time of its use can create an atmosphere of educational interaction. 

To avoid the saturation and cessation of students' interest in the lesson, teachers should use various methods Even the methods used can foster students' desire to learn independently using their own techniques. In the classroom teachers deliver lesson materials. The lesson material will give less impetus to the students to learn more when the delivery uses a less precise strategy. The selected methods are used on the basis of their benefits, so a teacher is said to be competent if he has a rich way of delivering the gift and has the criteria that will be used to select ways of presenting the teaching and learning experience. In the process of learning to teach also needed tools used to eliminate verbalitas. So that students more quickly absorb the material that has been delivered. 


Teaching methods applied by teachers should be able to realize the work of students. Students are led to be able to think critically and creatively by giving the students an opportunity to convey their ideas. Selection of inappropriate methods with the nature of materials and learning objectives cause the class less passionate and less creative student conditions. So with the application of appropriate methods with a variety of indicators can increase student interest in the lesson material delivered and great interest will ultimately affect the achievement that will be achieved. 

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