DEFINITION AND FORM OF TEACHING SKILLS

Posted by PENDIDIKAN KEWARGANEGARAAN on Jumat, 22 April 2016

DEFINITION AND FORM OF TEACHING SKILLS
A. UNDERSTANDING OF TEACHING SKILLS
One of the basic skills possessed by teachers is the ability in teaching skills. This ability equips teachers in carrying out their duties and responsibilities as teachers. The teaching skills are to achieve the teaching objectives.

The understanding of the teaching skills of teachers is as the opinion of Armstrong et al (1992: 33) that is the ability to specify the purpose of performance, the ability to diagnose students, the skills to choose the strategy of teaching, the ability to interact with students, and skills to assess the effectiveness of teaching.

The teaching is a complex process, not just convey information from teachers to students, many activities and actions that must be done, especially if the desired results of better learning on the students. For that there are many different meanings of teaching, among others:

According to M.Ali (1987: 12) interpreting teaching is: "Any deliberate effort in order to give the possibility for students to the learning process in accordance with the objectives formulated".

Meanwhile, according to Nasution (1995: 4) provides a complete definition of teaching as follows:
1.   Teaching is instilling knowledge to the child.
2.   Teaching is communicating culture to children.
3.   Teaching is an activity to organize or manage the environment as well as possible and connect with children so that the learning process occurs.

Based on the above opinion, it can be concluded that the definition of teaching skills is a skill that is related to all aspects of teacher ability that is closely related to various tasks of teachers in the form of skills in order to provide stimulation and motivation to students to carry out actuitas by the teacher is ketermpilan to guide, Building students in learning to achieve educational goals that have been determined in an integrated manner.


B. FORMS OF TEACHING SKILLS
As has been known that teaching is a complex and integrative system of a number of skills to convey a message to someone teaching is said to be a complex system because in teaching teachers not only provide information orally to students, but in teaching teachers must be able to create environmental situations Which allows the child to actively learn, so the teacher must involve some components and competence of learning and teaching interaction.

For more details about some concepts of teaching skills, then the following will be described from the forms of teaching skills that must be mastered by teachers in implementing the teaching and learning process include:

1) Questioning Skills

Asking questions to students is an activity that can not be separated in teaching and learning activities, because any method used, any teaching objectives to be achieved, then ask the students is something that can not be left behind.Because the question posed to the students basically aims to make students more improve learning and thinking about the subject being studied.

Piet A. Sahertian and Ida Alaeida Sahertian (1992: 100) concluded that the questioning skill is a skill that contains verbal speech that required a response from a known person.

While the response in question is to be knowledge up to the results of consideration. So it can be inferred to ask is an effective stimulus that encourages the ability to think. A teacher who asks questions using appropriate questioning skills has several objectives including:
  • Generating students' interest and curiosity on a subject.
  • Concentrate students on a subject.
  • Diagnose specific difficulties that lead students to learn.
  • Developing active student learning
  • Provide an opportunity for students to assimilate information.
  • Encourage students to express their views in the discussion.
  • Test and measure student learning outcomes.
In an effort to achieve the above objectives, there are some things that get the teacher's attention when using basic ask skills as well as advanced ask skills eg warmth and enthusiasm, repeating his own questions, answering his own questions, specifying a particular student to answer, multiple questions.

Skills are distinguished from basic ask skills and follow-up skills, basic inquiring skills need to be applied in asking all kinds of questions, whereas advanced ask skills is a continuation of basic asking skills that prioritize developing students' thinking skills, enlarging participation and encouraging students to take initiative .

So it can be concluded that a teacher should be able to distinguish between basic questions of ask and advanced questioning skills, because they have a link in testing students against the lessons that have been delivered in the classroom in the learning process

According to Piet A. Sahertian and Ida Alaeida Sahertian (1992: 100) suggests a skill component to ask:

a) Basic skills
  • Disclosure of questions is clear and concise
  • Giving references
  • Turn shift
  • Spreading questions
  • Giving time thinking
  • Centering towards the requested answer
b) Advanced skills
  • Change the cognitive level question guide
  • The order of the questions must be a logical sequence
  • Track
  • Skills encourage interaction among students.
Based on the description above, it is clear that the mastery of questions for teachers is very important, because with the use of effective and efficient questioning skills in the learning process is expected to change attitudes in teachers and students, such as changes in teachers, providing information, using many interactions, on Students listen to more information and become more participant.

2) Strengthening skills

In the process of learning to teach, appreciation or praise of the good deeds of students is a very necessary, so with the award or praise is expected students will continue to try to do better.

Soetomo (1993: 95) concludes that what is meant by giving reinforcement is: "A positive response from the teacher to the child who has done a good deed".

As it is known that a positive appreciation of a person will improve his behavior and improve his business. Therefore, strengthening of students and all activities are needed in order to grow and develop the learning process. Giving reinforcement in teaching activities seems simple, among other things expressed in the form of words justify, words of praise, smile or nod, while the provision of reinforcement in the classroom will encourage students to increase their business in teaching and learning activities and develop learning outcomes.

According to Piet A. Sahertian and Ida Alaeida Sahertian (1992: 100) Giving reinforcement in teaching and learning process has goals include:
  • Increase student attention.
  • Facilitate the learning process.
  • Generating and maintaining motivation.
  • Controlling and changing disruptive attitudes towards productive behavioral attitudes.
  • Set yourself a good way of thinking and personal initiative.

Given the very importance of the role of empowerment in teaching and learning process, it is necessary that teachers train themselves regularly and directed about the skills of reinforcement consists of several components that need to be understood and mastered its use by the teacher so that he can provide wise and systematic strengthening of the component is as follows :

a) Verbal Reinforcement
Usually used or spoken by using words of praise, appreciation, approval, etc., such as good, excellent, true, clever, a hundred for you.

b) Non verbal reinforcement
  • Strengthening gestures, such as a nod of the head, a smile, thumbs up, a bright face, a cool, friendly or sharply challenging eye.
  • Strengthening approach: teachers approach students to express their concern and pleasure to the lessons, behavior, or performance of the students eg teachers standing beside students, toward students, sitting with students or groups of students.
  • Reinforcement by touch, the teacher can express approval and appreciation of the student's performance effort by patting the shoulder or shaking hands raising the hand of the winning student in the match.
  • Strengthening with fun activities, teachers can use activities or tasks that students enjoy as a reinforcement. For example students who show progress in music lessons are appointed as choir leaders.
  • Reinforcement in the form of symbols or objects. Reinforcement is done by using as a symbol of pictorial card objects, written comments on students, plastic stars, badges.
  • If the student gives a partially correct answer, the teacher should not blame the student. In these circumstances let the teacher give full reinforcement for example: yes, your answer is good but still needs to be refined.
3) Skill of performing variation
Giving variation in teaching and learning process is important and must be paid attention by teacher, because more and more teacher give variation in teaching process hence more succulence of teaching. Conversely, teachers who continue to teach by giving lectures from beginning to end will cause boredom to students.

Soetomo (1993: 100) suggests that giving variations in teaching and learning process is defined as a change of teaching from one to another, in order to eliminate the boredom and saturation of the students in receiving the lesson material given by the teacher. So that students can be active again and participate in learning.

Meanwhile, according to piet A. Sahertian and Ida Alaeida Sahertian (1992: 103) concluded that: using variation is the change of teachers in the context of teaching and learning process that aims to overcome the boredom of students, so there is a sense of perseverance, enthusiasm, and play an active role.

From the definition of giving the variation proposed by the two experts it can be concluded that the provision of variation that means a teacher activity in the context of teaching and learning process that aims to overcome the boredom of students, so that in teaching and learning situation students who aim to overcome student boredom, senantisa show persistence, Enthusiasm, and full participation. Boredom is an ever-present problem and people are always trying to eliminate or at least try to reduce it. Therefore, the student wants a variation in the learning process, so learning itself is more interesting and more alive. Thus more able to focus their attention, and learn more successfully.

According Soetomo (1993: 95) Provision of appropriate variations in teaching and learning process will be able to provide benefits for students are:
  • To generate and increase students' attention to the relevant aspects of teaching and learning
  • To provide opportunities for the development of talents want to know to investigate the students about the things that are new.
  • To foster positive behavior toward teachers and schools with a more lively way of teaching and a better learning environment.
  • To provide opportunities for students to get a way to receive a favorite lesson.

With this goal. A teacher should organize variations in teaching and learning, be they variations in teaching styles, variations in patterns of interaction and student activities.
The following will describe the components of the skill of performing variations:
a) Variations in teaching styles, including:
  • Variation of sound, loud weak
  • Concentration of student attention
  • Silence or silence of the teacher
  • Contact view
  • Motion and mimic
  • Teacher position change

b) Variations in media usage and instructional materials, including:
  • Media and audible materials such as sound recordings, radio, music, sociodrama.
  • Variations of visible tools or materials such as charts, charts, posters, movie diodrama, slides.
  • Variations of tactile, manipulated and driven tools or materials such as dolls, masks, pockets.
  • Variations of audible and palpable tools or materials, such as television, radio, projector slide with new explanations.
c) Variations in patterns of student interaction and activities
Changes in interaction between the two poles before will result in patterns of activities undertaken by students.

Uzer Usman (1990: 85) suggests the following types of interaction patterns:
1)  Student pattern of teacher or communication as action (one way)
2) Teacher-pupil pattern (There is a feedback (feed back) for teachers there is no interaction between students (communication as interaction)
3) Teacher-teacher-pupil pattern (There is feedback for teachers, students learn from each other)
4) Teacher-student pattern, student-teacher, pupil (optimal interaction between teacher and student and between pupil and student (communication as transaction, multiarah)
5) Circular Pattern (Each student gets a turn to express remarks or answers, not allowed to speak twice if the student has not got a turn)

The use of such interaction pattern variation in order not to cause boredom, joviality, and to revive the classroom atmosphere for the success of students in achieving goals. By changing this pattern of interaction the teacher by itself alters student learning, teacher dominance and student involvement, cognitive level demands, and classroom order.

4) Explaining Skills
Activities explained in the teaching and learning process is an absolute activity undertaken by the teacher, because whatever is conveyed, whatever type of school, and however delivered, whatever type of school, and whatever the age level of the student, the explaining activities should always be implemented by the teacher, it's just the way Its delivery and its different qualities see all the above components and adjust to the situation at that time.

Uzer Usman (1990: 81) suggests that the skill of explaining is the orally organized presentation of information that is organized systematically to indicate the existence of relationships with one another, for example between cause and effect, definition by example or with something unknown.

Thus it can be concluded that the activities explain the existence of a presentation of information orally organized in a systematic manner that shows the relationship that must be mastered by teachers effectively and efficiently so that the learning process can run smoothly.

There are several goals that teachers want to achieve in explaining in the classroom:
  • To guide students to understand the law clearly answers the "why" question they presented or presented by the teacher.
  • Help students gain and understand laws, theorems, and general principles objectively and reasonably.
  • Involve students to think by solving problems or questions.
  • To get feedback from students about their level of understanding and to overcome their misconceptions.
  • Help students to live and gain the process of reasoning and the use of evidence in perpetuating dubious circumstances.
Giving an explanation is one of the most important aspects of teacher activity in interaction with classroom students. Therefore, this must be addressed to improve its effectiveness in order to achieve optimal results from the teacher's explanation and discussion so that it is meaningful for the students. Thus a teacher must know the skill component of explaining that is:
a) Planning, explanation should be given by using language that is easily understood by the students.

b) Present an explanation. Noteworthy:
  • Clarity: The explanation should be given in a language that is easily understood by the student.
  • The use of examples and illustrations: in explaining should be used examples that have something to do with something that can be encountered by students in everyday life.
  • Giving emphasis: teachers should focus students' attention on key issues that diminish less important information.
Use of feedback: teachers should give students an opportunity to show understanding, doubt, or lack of understanding when the explanation is given.


5) Opening and Closing Skills Lessons

1. Opening lesson
Opening lessons is an activity undertaken by teachers in teaching and learning process to create an atmosphere that makes students mentally ready and cause students attention focused on the things that will be learned so that the business will be positively affected the activities and student learning outcomes.

In other words opening lessons is an effort or activity undertaken by teachers in teaching and learning activities to create pre conditions for students to mentally and attention focused on what will be learned so that the business will have a positive effect on learning activities.

The opening of such a lesson should not only be done at the beginning of the lesson but also at the beginning of each activity break from the core lessons given during the lesson. So students are expected to be encouraged to follow the subject matter to be delivered.

Uzer Usman (1990: 85) describes the skills component of opening lessons as follows:
a) Attract students attention, among others by:
  • Teacher's teaching style
  • Use of lesson aids
  • Interaction patterns vary
b) Increase motivation by:
  • Warmth and enthusiasm
  • Cultivate curiosity
  • Bring out conflicting ideas
  • Pay attention to student interest
c) Giving reference through various efforts:
  • Suggests the goals and task limits
  • Suggest steps to be taken
  • Reminds the key issues to be discussed
  • Make inquiries
d) Making connections among the materials to be studied with experiences and knowledge that have been mastered by students.

Of the various things done above with the aim that children can focus on the material to be submitted by the teacher and was ready to receive the material.

2. Closing lessons
Closing the lesson according to Soetomo (1993: 107) is "the teacher's activity to end the teaching and learning process". So closing the lesson is intended to provide a comprehensive picture of what students have achieved and the success of teachers in the learning process.

While the components of closing the lessons of teachers according to Uzer Usman (1990: 85) are:

a) Review the mastery of the core of the lesson by summarizing the core of the lesson and making a summary.

b) Evaluating, in the form of:
  • Demonstrate skill
  • Apply new ideas to other situations
  • Explore new ideas in other situations
  • Provide written questions

Thus the activities of opening and closing the lessons do not include sequences of routine activities, such as disciplining students, filling out attendance lists, assigning homework, should the center of attention in opening and closing lessons are activities that are directly related to the delivery of lessons. While the ultimate goal of opening a lesson is to mentally prepare students and generate interest and attention concerning students on what will be discussed in the learning process invites, and closing lessons in order to know the success rate in learning the lesson.


6) Small Group Discussion Skills
Group discussion according to Uzer Usman (1990: 86) is an orderly process that involves a group of people in informal face-to-face interaction with experience or information, conclusions, or problem solving.

In other words group discussion is one strategy that allows students to master a concept or solve a problem through a process that provides opportunities for thinking, social interaction, and practice a positive attitude. Understanding group discussions in teaching and learning activities is not much different from the above understanding. Students discuss in small groups, under the leadership of teachers or friends, for various information and make a decision.

The skills component to guide the discussion presented by Uzer Usman (1990: 87) are:
a) Focusing students' attention on the purpose and topic of discussion, the way is as follows:
  • The formulation of objectives and topics to be discussed at the beginning of the discussion.
  • Bring up special issues
  • Record changes or distortions of discussions of purpose
  • Summarize the results of the discussion in the discussion
b) Clarify the problem or descendants of opinion, by:
  • Reselamble or re-summarize it until it becomes clear
  • Request student comments and ask questions
  • Describe students' ideas by providing information
c) Analyze students' views
  • Examine whether the reasons have a solid basis and clarify the agreed points
d) Increase student offspring
  • Ask questions, give examples
  • Giving time thinking and providing support
e) Closes the discussion
  • Summarizes the results of the discussion
  • Gives a description of the follow-up
  • Invite students to assess the process of discussion results

7) Manage Classroom Skills
In the process of teaching and learning in the classroom is necessary once the creation of an environment that allows children to learn quietly without any interference, so that the goals set can be achieved

The skills of managing the classroom are the skills of the teacher to create and maintain optimal learning conditions, and skills to restore optimal learning conditions, in the event of minor and temporary disturbances as well as ongoing disturbances.

Under these conditions it can be concluded that the skills of managing the class are activities to create and maintain optimal conditions for the learning process.Referred to in this case is for example the cessation of student behavior that distorts class attention, rewards for timeliness of task completion by students, or the determination of productive group norms.

According Syaiful Bakri Djamarah (1991: 112) classroom management skills include:
  • Demonstrate responsiveness; Looking closely at the motion of approaching, asking questions, and reacting to student distractions and disorder.
  • Give attention, visually, verbally and combined verbally and visually.
  • Focus group attention; Alert students and demand responsibility.
  • Rebellious; Firm and clear, do not be rude, painful and insulting, avoiding taunts and so on.
  • Provide clear instructions
  • Provide reinforcement.

8) Teaching Skills for Small Groups and Individuals
Physically marking this form of teaching is the number of students faced by teachers ranging from 3-8 people to small groups, and to a single person. This does not mean that the teacher faces only one group or a student over time.Teachers face many students who are composed of several groups that can meet face-to-face both individually and in groups. While the essence of this teaching is:
  • The occurrence of interpersonal relationships between teachers with students and also students with students
  • Students learn according to their speed and ability
  • Students get help from teachers according to their learning needs

Components of skills in teaching small groups and individuals according to Piet Sahertian and Ida Alaeida Sahertian (1992: 105) are:
  • Personal approach skills show warmth, response, readiness to help students, listen sympathetically
  • Organizing skills
  • Guiding skills and facilitate learning
  • Skills to plan and implement teaching and learning activities.
Teaching skills of small groups and individuals is an essential requirement for any teacher who wishes to improve his or her professional skills. Individual teaching is a way of learning that can meet the needs of the optimal, as well as provide greater learning responsibility to students.


C. Teacher Skills Factors In Teaching and Learning Process
The teaching and learning process is an aspect of an organized school environment. This environment is regulated and supervised so that learning activities are directed towards educational goals. The supervision of the environment also determines the extent to which a good learning environment. A good learning environment is a challenging environment and stimulates students to learn to provide a sense of security and satisfaction and to achieve the expected goals.

The quality and quantity of student learning in the learning process depends on many factors including students in the classroom, learning materials, learning supplies, conditions and atmosphere in the learning process.

According to A. Tabrani Rusyan (1990: 82), other important factors in the learning process that must be implemented by teachers, include:
  • Instructional planning
  • Organizational learning
  • Mobilize learners
  • Supervision
  • Research.

Reference

Amstrong. 1992. Supervisi Pengajaran, Jakarta, Rineka Cipta.

M. Ali. 1987. Guru Dalam Proses belajar Mengajar, Bandung, Sinar Baru Algesindo.

S. Nasution. 1995. Didaktik  Asas-asas Mengajar. Jakarta, Bumi Aksara.

Piet Sahertian, Ida Alaeida Sahertian. 1992.Supervisi Pendidikan Dalam Rangka Program Inservice Education. Jakarta, Rineka Cipta.

Soetomo. 1993. Dasar-dasar Interaksi Belajar Mengajar, Surabaya, Usaha Nasional.

Moh. Uzer Usman. 1990. Menjadi Guru Profesional, Bandung, Remaja Rosdakarya.

Syaiful Bahri Dajamarah.1991. Prestasi Belajar dan Kompetensi Guru, Syrabaya, Usaha Nasional.

A. Tabrani Rusyan dkk. 1990. Pendekatan Dalam Proses Belajar Mengajar, Jakarta, Remaja Karya.


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