Posted by PENDIDIKAN KEWARGANEGARAAN on Rabu, 22 Juni 2016

Definition of Educational Supervision
The term supervision comes from two words, namely "super" and "vision". In Webster's New World Dictionary the super term means “higher in rank or position than, superior to (superintendent), a greater or better than others” (1991:1343). While the word vision means “the ability to perceive something not actually visible, as through mental acuteness or keen foresight (1991:1492).

Supervisor is a professional. In carrying out his duties, he acts on the basis of scientific principles to improve the quality of education. To supervise the need for excess that can see sharply to the problem of improving the quality of education, using the sensitivity to understand it and not just using ordinary eyesight. He fosters the improvement of academic quality through the creation of better learning situations, both in physical and non-physical environments.

The formulation or definition of supervision can be explained from various angles, either by the origin (etymology), the form of the word, or the content contained in it (semantic). Etymologically, supervision by S. Wajowasito and W.J.S Poerwadarminta cited by Ametembun (1993: 1): "Supervision is translated from the English word" Supervision "means supervision.

The definition of supervision etimologically still according to Ametembun (1993: 2), mentions that seen from the form of his words, supervision consists of two words super + vision: Super = above, more, Vision = see, look, watch. The meaning implied in this sense, that a supervisor has a position or position more than the supervised person, his duty is to look, examine or supervise the supervised people.

Experts in the field of educational administration provide an agreement that educational supervision is a discipline that focuses on assessing improvements in teaching and learning situations, as expressed by (Gregorio, 1966, Glickman Carl D, 1990, Sergiovanni, 1993 and Gregg Miller, 2003 ). This is also expressed in the article of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development in America (Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1987: 129) which mentions the following: Almost all writers agree that the primary focus in educational supervision is-and should be-the improvement of teaching and learning. The term instructional supervision is widely used in the literature of embody all effort to those ends. Some writers use the term instructional supervision synonymously with general supervision.

Supervision is done by the supervisor of the educational unit, certainly has a different mission with supervision by the principal. In this case supervision is more intended to provide services to the principal in institutional management effectively and efficiently and develop the quality of educational institutions.

In the context of quality control of education, the supervision by the supervisor of educational unit such as activities in the form of intensive observation of the learning process in educational institutions, then followed up with the feed back. (Razik, 1995: 559). This is in line with L Drake's (1980: 278) view that supervision is a sophisticated term because it has a broad meaning, that is identical with the process of management, administration, evaluation and accountability or various activities as well as Creativity associated with institutional management in the institutional environment of the school level.

Rifa'i (1992: 20) defines the term supervision as a professional oversight, as this is in addition to being more specific as well as observing academic activities based on scientific ability, and the approach is no longer an ordinary management control but rather demanding Democratic and humanistic professional capabilities by education supervisors.

Supervision is essentially directed at two aspects: academic supervision, and managerial supervision. Academic supervision focuses on supervisor observations on academic activities, in the form of learning both inside and outside the classroom. Managerial supervision focuses on observing the aspects of school management and administration that serve as a support for the implementation of learning.

Oliva (1984: 19-20) explains there are four kinds of roles a supervisor or supervisor education, namely as: coordinator, consultant, group leader and evaluator. Supervisors should be able to coordinate programs, goups, materials, and reports relating to schools and teachers. Supervisors should also be able to act as consultants in school management, curriculum development, learning technology, and staff development. She has to serve principals and teachers, both group and individual. There are times when supervisors should play the role of group leaders, in meetings related to curriculum development, learning or school management in general.

Gregorio (1966) argues that there are five main functions of supervision, namely: as inspection, research, training, guidance and assessment. The inspection function, among others, plays a role in studying the condition and condition of the school, and in related institutions, the task of a superintendent, among others, plays a role in conducting research on the state of the school as a whole both in teachers, students, curricula of learning goals and teaching methods, Is finding problems by observing, interviewing, questionnaires, meetings and checklists.

The research function is to find a way out of the related problems being faced, and this research is done in accordance with scientific procedures, ie formulate problems to be studied, collect data, process data, and perform an analysis to draw conclusions on what develops in developing exit strategies Of the above problems.

The training function is one of the efforts to improve the skills of teachers / principals in a field. In the training was introduced to teachers new ways more appropriate in implementing a learning process, and the type of training that can be used between lan through teaching demonstrations, workshops, seminars, observations, individual and group conferences, and supervision visits.

The function of guidance itself is defined as an effort to encourage teachers both individually and in groups so that they will do various improvements in carrying out their duties. Guidance activities are conducted by generating willingness, encouragement, directing and stimulating to conduct experiments, and help implement a new teaching procedure.

The assessment function is to measure the desired level of progress, how much has been achieved and the assessment is done in various ways such as test, standard setting, assessment of student learning progress, see the progress of school assessment results and other procedures oriented to improving the quality of education.

Managerial Supervision
The essence of managerial supervision is the monitoring and fostering of school management and administration. Thus, the focus of this supervision is on the implementation of the school management field, which includes the following: (a) curriculum and learning management, (b) student affairs, (c) facilities and infrastructure, (d) manpower, (e) finance, ) School relationships with the community, and (g) special services.

In supervising the above matters, supervisors are also required to enforce the implementation of national education standards covering eight components: (a) content standards, (b) graduate competency standards, (c) process standards, (d) Educational and educational staff standards, (e) standards of facilities and infrastructure, (f) management standards, (g) financing standards, and (h) assessment standards. The objective of supervising these eight aspects is to ensure that schools are well accredited and meet national education standards.

Another important focus in managerial supervision by school supervisors is on management or school management. As has been known in the last decade has developed the discourse of school-based management (SBM), as a new paradigm of management from centralization to decentralization that gives autonomy to the school and increases community participation (Sudarwan Danim, 2006: 4) Supervisors are required Explains and introduces this management innovation model in accordance with the socio-cultural context and the internal conditions of each school.

Methods and Technical Managerial Supervision
Here are the methods and techniques that can be used in managerial supervision

1. Monitoring and Evaluation
The main method that should be done by the supervisor of the education unit in managerial supervision is of course monitoring and evaluation.

a. Monitoring / Supervision
Monitoring is an activity aimed at understanding the progress of school implementation, whether it is in accordance with predetermined plans, programs, and / or standards, and finds barriers to be overcome in the implementation of the program (Rochiat, 2008: 115). Monitoring focuses more on control during the program and is more clinical. Through monitoring, feedback can be obtained for the school or other parties concerned to succeed achievement goals. The aspects observed in monitoring are the things developed and implemented in the School Development Plan (RPS). In conducting this monitoring, supervisors must equip themselves with a parangkat or checklist containing all school indicators to be observed and assessed.

Traditionally supervisory execution involves stages: (a) setting standards for measuring achievement, (b) measuring achievement, (c) analyzing whether achievements meet standards, and (d) taking action if achievement is lacking / not meeting standards (Nanang Fattah 1996: 102).

In recent developments, the tendency of supervision in the world of education also follows what is done to the industry, namely by applying Total Quality Controll. This oversight is of course focused on quality control and is more internal. Therefore, in recent years every educational institution generally has a quality assurance unit.

b. Evaluation
Evaluation activities aimed to find out how successful the implementation of school implementation or how far the success has been achieved in a certain period of time. The main objectives of evaluation are to (a) know the level of program implementation, (b) to know the success of the program, (c) obtain material / input in the next year's planning, and (d) to provide judgment of the school.
2. Reflektion and Focused Group Discussion
In accordance with the new paradigm of school management that is empowerment and participation, the judgment of the success or failure of a school in implementing the program or achieving the standards is not just a supervisory authority. Monitoring results by supervisors should be made publicly available to schools, especially school principals, vice principals, school committees and teachers. Together schools can reflect on existing data, and discover for themselves the inhibiting and supporting factors they have felt. The forum for this could be a Focused Group Discussion (FGD), involving elements of school stakeholders. This focus group discussion can be conducted in several rounds as needed. The purpose of the FGD is to bring together stakeholder views on the reality of the school's strengths and weaknesses, as well as to determine the strategic and operational steps to be taken to advance the school. The role of supervisor in this case is as a facilitator as well as a resource when necessary, to provide input based on knowledge and experience.

3. Delphi method
The Delphi method can be used by supervisors in assisting the school to formulate its vision, mission and objectives. In accordance with the MBS concept, in formulating a School Development Plan (RPS) a school should have clear and realistic vision, mission and objectives formulated from the school, learners, potentials, and views of all stakeholders.

So far most schools have formulated their vision and mission in the composition of a "good" sentence, without being based on philosophy and credibility of the potential. As a result the vision and mission are unrealistic, and do not inspire the school community to achieve it.

The Delphi method is an efficient way to involve many school stakeholders regardless of the status factors that are often a constraint in a discussion or deliberation. For example, schools hold joint meetings between schools, education offices, community leaders, students and teachers, then usually the conversation is only dominated by certain people who are confident to speak in the forum. The rest of the participants will only become passive listeners.
Delphi method can be submitted by the supervisor to the principal when it wants to take decisions involving many parties. The steps according to Gorton (1976: 26-27) are as follows:
1) Identify individuals or parties who are deemed to understand the issues and want to be consulted on the development of the school;
2) Each party is required to submit their opinion in writing without any name / identity;
3) Collect the incoming opinions, and list the order according to the number of people who think the same.
4) Re-submit the list of opinion formulas from various parties to give priority order.
5) Reassembling priority order according to the participants, and delivering the final result of the decision decision of all the participants asked for their opinion.

4. Workshop
Workshop or workshop is one of the methods that can be taken by supervisor in doing managerial supervision. This method is certainly a group and may involve several principals, vice principals and / or school committee representatives. The organization of this workshop is certainly tailored to its purpose or urgency, and can be held in conjunction with the Principal Working Group or other similar organizations. For example, supervisors may take the initiative to hold workshops on KTSP development, ddministrasi system, community participation, appraisal system and so on.

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