LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT

Posted by PENDIDIKAN KEWARGANEGARAAN on Jumat, 22 Juli 2016

LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT
Definition of Learning Achievement
Learning Achievement can not be separated from learning activities, because learning is a process, while learning achievement is the result of the learning process. For a child learning is an obligation. Success or failure of a child in education depends on the learning process experienced by the child.


Achievement is the result someone has achieved in doing the activity. Gagne (1985: 40) states that Achievement Learning is divided into five aspects, namely: intellectual ability, cognitive strategies, verbal information, attitudes and skills. According to Bloom in Suharsimi Arikunto (1990: 110) that learning outcomes can be divided into three aspects, namely cognitive, affective and psychomotor.

Achievement is the result of an activity that has been done, created both individually and in groups (Djamarah, 1994: 19).

The word achievement comes from the Dutch "Prestasic" which means the result of effort. In a large dictionary Bahasa Indonesia Learning Achievement is defined as the result of the assessment obtained from cognitive schooling activities and is usually determined through measurement and assessment.

According to Wikipedia, Achievement comes from the Dutch language which means the result of the effort. Achievements are derived from the business that has been done. From the definition of Achievement, then understanding Self-achievement is the result of the effort made by someone. Achievement can be achieved by relying on intellectual, emotional, and spiritual ability, as well as self-defense in facing the situation of all aspects of life. The character of the Achievers is to love the job, to have the initiative and to be creative, to never give up, and to carry out the task in earnest. The characters show that to achieve a certain Achievement,

Achievement is the result someone has achieved in doing the activity. Gagne (1985: 40) states that Achievement Learning is divided into five aspects, namely: intellectual ability, cognitive strategies, verbal information, attitudes and skills. According to Bloom in Suharsimi Arikunto (1990: 110) that learning outcomes can be divided into three aspects, namely cognitive, affective and psychomotor.

Achievements are skills or concrete results that can be achieved at a given time or period. Based on that opinion, Achievement in this research is result which have been achieved by student in learning process.

Definition of Learning
Learning is a mental activity or (Psikhis) that occurs because of the active interaction between ndividu with the environment that produces changes that are relativ fixed in aspects: cognitive, psychomotor and affective. The change may change something entirely new or improvements / improvements from learning results that have been obtained previously.

To understand about the meaning of learning here will begin by presenting some definitions of learning. There are some experts opinions about the definition of learning. According to Slavin in Catharina Tri Anni (2004), learning is a process of acquiring abilities derived from experience. According to Gagne in Catharina Tri Anni (2004), learning is a system in which there are various interrelated elements that result in behavioral changes.

Cronbach, Harold Spears and Geoch in Sardiman A.M (2005: 20) as follows:
1) Cronbach gives the definition: "Learning is shown by a change in behavior as a result of experience." "Learning is showing changes in behavior as a result of experience".
2) Harold Spears provides the limits: "Learning is to observe, read, initiate, try something by yourself, listen, follow directions / directives .
3) Geoch, says: "Learning is a change in performance as a result of practice". Learning is a change in appearance as a result of practice.

Meanwhile, according to Bell-Gredler in Udin S. Winataputra (2008) understanding of learning is a process undertaken by humans to gain a variety of competencies, skills, and attitude. The competencies, skills, and attitudes are gradually and sustainably from infancy to old age through a series of lifelong learning processes.

Learning, is an activity that happens to everyone with no age limit, and runs a lifetime (long live educational). Learning is an effort that a person undertakes through interaction with his environment to change his behavior. Thus the result of learning activities is in the form of changes in behavior that is relatively permanent in the person who is learning, the change is expected is a change in positive behavior.

Learning can be defined as a process in which an activity originates or changes through the reaction of a given situation, with the fact that the characteristic of the allegorical nature of the activity change can not be explained on the basis of the trends of the original reaction, maturity, or temporary change of the organism. (Hilgard & Bower, 1996: 2, in Jogiyanto, 2006: 12).

From some understanding / definition above can be concluded that learning is always a change of behavior or appearance, with a series of activities for example by reading, observing, listening, imitating and so forth. Also learn it would be better if the subject studied it experienced or did it, so it is not verbalistic. Learning as an individual activity is actually the individual stimuli sent to it by the environment. Thus the occurrence of learning activities undertaken by an individual can be explained by the formula between individuals and the environment.

According to Udin S. Winataputra (1995: 2) argued that learning (learning) contains a sense of change process that is relatively fixed in the behavior of individuals as a result of experience. Understanding of learning is also put forward by Slameto (2003: 2) ie learning is a process of business undertaken by a person to obtain a new change of behavior as a whole, as a result of his own experience in interaction with the environment.

In harmony with the above opinions, the Judge (2000: 1) argues that learning is a process of change in the human personality, and the change is expressed in terms of improving the quality and quantity of behaviors such as the improvement of skills, knowledge, attitudes, , Skills, thinking power, etc. This means that improving the quality and quantity of one's behavior is shown in terms of an increase in the quality and quantity of one's ability in various fields. In the process of learning, if a person does not get an improvement in the quality and quantity of ability, then the person actually has not experienced the learning process or in other words he experienced a failure in the learning process.


Definition of Learning Achievement

Every educator would really expect his students to achieve as optimal as possible on both academic and non academic tracks. Achievements have a very broad understanding. If the learner can achieve the goal or at least be able to complete the task of the teacher and others then he is called achievers.

Learning achievement means a lot of how far the results that have been achieved by students in the mastery of tasks or subject matter received within a certain time. Learning Achievement is generally expressed in numbers or letters so that it can be compared with one criterion (Prakosa, 1991).

Student Achievement is the result achieved from what has been done / done (Dictionary of Indonesian Language, 2003: 895), while according to Tu'u (2004: 75) learning achievement is the mastery of knowledge or skills developed by the subjects, usually shown With the value of the test or the grade given by the teacher. According Sukmadinata (2003: 101), "Learning Achievement is the realization or expansion of potential skills or capacity possessed by someone".

Achievement Learning ability of a high achievement in thinking. Achievement Learning should have three aspects, namely cognitive, affective and psychomotor. Learning Achievement is the best achieved outcome in a child in either a working education or a scientific field. Achievement Learning from students is a result that has been achieved by students who obtained from the learning process. Learning Achievement is the result of maximum achievement according to the ability of the child at a certain time to something done, studied, understood and applied.

Winkel (1996: 226) suggests that Achievement Learning is a proof of success that has been achieved by someone. So Learning Achievement is the maximum result achieved by someone after carrying out the learning efforts. Meanwhile, according to Arif Gunarso (1993: 77) argued that Learning Achievement is the maximum effort achieved by someone after carrying out the efforts to learn.

Achievement Learning in the field of education is the result of measurements to learners that include cognitive, affective and psychomotor factors after following the learning process measured by using test instruments or relevant instruments. So Learning Achievement is the measurement result of the learning business assessment expressed in the form of symbols, letters and sentences that tell the results that have been achieved by each child in a certain period. Learning Achievement is the result of measurement to learners covering cognitive, affective and psychomotor factors after following the learning process measured by using the relevant test instrument.

Learning Achievements can be measured through tests that are often known as the Learning Achievement test. According Saifudin Anwar (2005: 8-9) suggests about achievement test Learning when viewed from the goal is to reveal the success of someone in learning. Testing essentially explores the information that can be used as a basis for decision making. The Learning Achievement Test is a well-crafted test to reveal the maximum performance of the subject in mastering the materials or materials that have been taught. In the formal educational activities of achievement test can be in the form of daily test, formative test, summative test, even ebtanas and college entrance examinations. Understanding Learning Achievement is something that can be achieved or can not be achieved. To achieve a Learning Achievement students must experience the learning process. In implementing the learning process students will gain knowledge, experience, and skills.

Maryanto (in Yulita, 2008) says that someone who has tried to achieve his goal and succeed, then the person is declared achievement. Maryanto further states that someone is stated achievement if able to provide something best for others, able to do things well in everything, make dreams come true and able to stop bad habits.

Student learning achievement is the actual skill or result obtained by the student after doing the learning activity at certain period (Nurkancana, in Sukiaiyana 2003).

According Purwadarminto (in Yulita, 2008) learning achievement is the best achieved results according to the ability of children at certain times of things done or done

Student Learning Achievement is the result that a person achieves in the revelation of knowledge and skills developed in the lesson, typically indicated by a score test scores given by the teacher (Asmara, 2009: 11).

According to Hetika (2008: 23), Learning Achievement is the achievement or skill that is expressed in the expertise or knowledge collection. While Harjati (2008: 43), states that Achievement is the result of efforts undertaken dam resulting in changes expressed in the form of symbols to indicate the ability of achievement in the work within a certain time.

According to Sutratinah Tirtonegoro (1984: 4), suggests that: Learning Achievement is an assessment of learning activity results expressed in the form of symbols of numbers, letters and sentences that can reflect the results achieved by each student within a certain period.

Haditomo et al (1980: 4), says "Learning Achievement is a person's ability as a result of learning." Dewa Ketut Sukardi (1983: 51), states "To measure Learning Achievement using achievement test as a tool to reveal actual ability as a result of learning or Learning. "According to Sumadi Suryabrata (1987: 324)," Value is the final formulation that can be given by the teacher on the progress or Achievement of Student Learning during a certain period. "With the value of report cards, we can know Student Achievement Students. High achievement, while the bad value is said to be low Learning Achievement.

Effective learning can help students to improve their expected abilities according to the instructional goals they wish to achieve. To improve the achievement of good learning needs to be considered internal and external conditions. Internal conditions are the conditions or situations that exist in students, such as health, skills, ability and the like. External conditions are conditions that exist outside of the human self, such as a clean study, adequate facilities and learning infrastructure.

The knowledge, experience and skills acquired will shape the student's personality, broaden the student's personality, broaden life's horizons and improve student's abilities. Starting from that then the students who actively carry out activities in learning will gain a lot of experience. Thus, students who are active in learning will experience a lot and their Learning Achievement increases. Conversely, students who are not active will be minimal / a little experience so that it can be said Learning Achievement does not increase or not succeed.

Understanding of Learning Achievement. Learning Achievement is defined as the level of student interconnection in the learning process as a result of the evaluation conducted by the teacher. According to Sutratinah Tirtonegoro (1984: 4), suggests that: Learning Achievement is an assessment of learning activity results expressed in the form of symbols of numbers, letters and sentences that can reflect the results achieved by each student within a certain period.

According to Siti Partini (1980: 49), "Learning Achievement is a result achieved by a person in learning activities". In line with the opinions achieved by someone in the learning activities ". In line with that opinion Sunarya (1983: 4) states "Learning Achievement is a behavioral change that includes the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains that are measures of student success". Haditomo et al (1980: 4), said, "Learning Achievement is the ability of Dewa Ketut Sukardi (1983: 51), states" To measure Learning Achievement using Achievement test as a tool to reveal actual ability as learning result or learning ". According to Sumadi Suryabrata (1987: 324), "Value is the final formulation that can be given by the teacher on the progress or achievement of student learning during a certain period". With the value of report card, we can know Student Achievement. Students who have good grades are said to have high Achievement, whereas the bad value is said Low Learning Achievement.

From some opinions above it can be concluded that Learning Achievement is the achievable achievement of students visible from the knowledge, attitude, and expertise it has.


Factors Affecting Learning Achievement

Any activity undertaken by someone of course there are factors that influence it, both tend to encourage and inhibit. Likewise experienced in learning. Ahmadi, (in Yulita, 2008) states there are several factors that affect student achievement, including:

1) Internal Factors
Internal factors are factors that come from within students, which consists of:
a) Factors of intelligence
In a narrow sense intelligence can be defined as the ability to achieve achievement. Intelligence plays an important role in achieving achievement.
b) Interest factors
Interest is a strong tendency in a person to feel attracted to a certain.
c) Physical and psychological factors
Physical state related to the state of growth, physical health, state of the sense devices and so forth. The psychic state is related to the mental state of the student.

2) External factors
External factors are factors from the outside of the learners themselves that affect learning achievement. There are several external factors:
a) Teacher Factor
Master's duty to guide, train, cultivate, research, develop and organize teaching and learning activities.
b) Family environmental factors
The family is very influential on the progress of learning achievement, because most of the time the students have at home. So there is plenty of opportunity to study at home.
Parents involvement should be taken into account in the effort to maintain the motivation to learn pesera students. In a study of learning achievement, found a strong relationship between parental involvement and learning achievement (Haster in Suwatra 2007).

C) Factor source of learning
Learning resources can be media or learning aids and supporting material. Learning aids are all tools that can be used to help students learn. Learning will be more interesting, concrete, easy to understand, save time and energy and the results are more meaningful.

In line with the above opinion, Dimyati Mahmud (1989: 84-87), said that the factors that influence student achievement include: "internal factors and external factors". as follows :

Internal factors
Internal factors or Factors derived from students is a factor that comes from within the student itself, which consists of N. Ach (Need For Achievement) is the need or encouragement or motive to berPrestasi. These factors include motivation, attention to the ongoing subject, level of remission and material reminders, the ability to apply what is learned, the ability to reproduce and the ability to generalize. Other internal factors are: a. Physiology in the form of physical condition and condition of the senses, b. Psychology in the form of talent, interest, intelligence, motivation and cognitive abilities.

External Factors
External factors are factors that come from outside the learner. This can be a means of infrastructure, environmental situation be it family environment, school and community environment. In Rooijakkers's opinion translated by Soenoro (1982: 30), says that "Factors that affect Learning Achievement are factors derived from the learner, factors derived from the teacher". This external factor is a factor that comes from outside the student (student) which includes: a. Natural environment and social environment; B. Instrumentation in the form of curriculum, teacher or teacher, facilities and facilities and administration.
Factor from inside

Including external factors include the ability to build a relationship with the learner, the ability to move the interest of the lesson, the ability to explain, the ability to mention the subject matter taught, the ability to direct attention to the ongoing lesson, the ability to respond to the reaction. From Rooijakkers opinion about the factors that influence Student Learning Achievement can be given the conclusion that Student achievement is influenced by two factors that are factors derived from the student self and factors derived from the teacher (teacher).

From some of the opinions of experts mentioned above it can be concluded that Achievement belaajr students are generally influenced by two factors namely the first factor comes from within the student itself and the second factor comes from outside the students who are doing the learning process.

In line with the above Slameto (2003: 54-72) also revealed that the factors that affect Learning Achievements of many kinds, but can be classified into two, namely:
a) Internal factors are factors that exist within the individual who is studying, internal factors consist of: 1) Physical factors (health and disability). Psychological factors (intelligence, attention, interest, talent, motive, maturity and readiness); 2) fatigue factor
b) External factors, ie factors from outside the individual. External factors consist of: 1) Family factors (how to educate parents, relationships between family members, home atmosphere, family economic situation, understanding of parents, and cultural background). 2) School factors (teacher teaching method, curriculum, teacher relation with student, student relation with student, school discipline, learning tool, school time, learning standard above measure, building condition, learning method and home duty 3) Community factors In society, mass media, social friends, and community life forms).

Ibrahim (in Sukiaiyana 2003) states that student achievement is influenced by several factors, namely: materials to be studied, environmental factors, instrumental factors, and student conditions.

This opinion is supported by the opinion expressed by Suryabrata, (in Surya Wijaya 2009) which suggests that the factors that influence student achievement are:
1) External factors consisting of environmental factors and instrumental factors.
2) The inner factor consisting of physiology (interest, talent, intelligence, motivation, and cognitive ability).

While Muhibbin Syah (2006: 144) revealed that that Student Learning Achievement is influenced by at least three factors namely:
a. Internal factors are factors that exist within the individual who is studying, internal factors consist of: 1) Physical factors that include health and disability of the body; 2) Psychological factors that include the level of intelligence, attention, interest, talent, motive, maturity and readiness; And 3) fatigue factor.
b. External factors, ie factors from outside the individual. External factors consist of: 1) Family factors that is how to educate parents, relationships between family members, home atmosphere, family economic situation, understanding of parents, and cultural background; 2) Factors of school environment that is teaching method of teacher, curriculum, teacher relation with student, student relation with student, school discipline, learning tool, school time, learning standard above measure, building condition, learning method and home duty; 3) Community factors ie student activities in the community, mass media, friends mingle, and life forms of society.
c. Factors approach approach to learning (approach to learning), namely the type of student learning efforts that include strategies and methods used by students to conduct learning activities lesson materials.

Based on the above opinion obtained the conclusion that the learning achievement is not only influenced by students but also by factors from outside the student self.

Basically the target of learning is an important concept in the learning process. Theoretically the target of learning includes three aspects: developing knowledge, attitude and skill. But in reality it is not a separate thing at all. Therefore it is not possible to develop these aspects together in a learning unit.

In research Emrizal Amri in Yani Setyowati (2002: 22) suggests, there are three types of learning achievement, namely:
1) Total learning achievement, ie student success rate in learning as a whole. This achievement reflects the ability of the students to recall facts and concepts and to understand the relationship between a fact with another, a concept with other concepts, and to understand the connection between facts and other facts. It is detected through the student's speed rate answering all questions in each unit of lessons that have been discussed.
2) Learning achievement considering facts and concepts, namely the level of success of students studying a subject, especially in aspects of remembering facts and concepts. This achievement is a reflection of the students' ability to recall. This is measured by answering a factual question
3) Achievement learn to understand facts and concepts, namely the success of students studying a subject especially in aspects of understanding facts and concepts.This is reflected through the ability of students understand.

According to Bloom in Dimyati and Mudjiono (2006: 26-27) classify learning achievement in three domains, namely cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. Learning achievement in the cognitive domain consists of six categories: knowledge, understanding, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.
1) Knowledge, achieving the memory capacity of what has been learned and stored in the memory. The relationship between facts and subject concepts. It is detected through the success of answering tests in the aspect of understanding. Knowledge is concerned with facts, events, understandings, rules, theories, principles, or methods.
2) Understanding, including the ability to capture meaning and meaning of what has been learned 3) Application, including the ability to apply methods and rules to deal with real and new problems, for example using the principle
4) The analysis, including the ability to break down a unity into parts so that the overall structure can be well understood, for example reducing the problem to a smaller part.
5) Synthesis, including the ability to form a new pattern, such as the ability to develop a work program
6) Evaluation, including the ability to form an opinion about some things based on certain criteria, such as the ability to assess the results of the essay.

The six types of behavior above are hierarchical, meaning that knowledge behavior is low, and the evaluation behavior is the highest.

Affective domain consists of five behaviors, namely acceptance, participation, assessment and determination of attitudes, organization, and the formation of lifestyle.
1) Acceptance, which includes sensitivity about certain things and willingness to pay attention to it, for example the ability to recognize dissent.
2) Participation, which includes willingness, willingness to pay attention, and participate in an activity, such as obeying the rules, and participate in an activity.
3) Assessment and attitude determination, which includes accepting a value, respecting, acknowledging, and determining attitudes. For example, accept an opinion of others
4) Organization, which includes the ability to form a value system as a guide and a handle of life. For example, placing value on a scale of values ​​and used as a guide to act responsibly.
5) The formation of lifestyle, which includes the ability to live up to values ​​and shaping it into a pattern of personal life value. For example, the ability to consider and demonstrate disciplined action.

These five types of behaviors appear to contain overlap and also contain cognitive abilities. The five types of behavior are hierarchical. Recognition behavior is the type of behavior of the lowest behavior and the behavior of lifestyle formation is the highest kind of behavior.

According to Simpson in Dimyati and Mudjiono (2006: 29-30) divides the psychomotor domain into seven types of behavior, namely: perception, preparedness, guided movement, accustomed movements, complex movements, adjustment of movement patterns, and creativity.
1) Perceptions, which include the ability to sort (specifically) discriminate things, and be aware of these distinctive differences. For example color sorting, numbers 6 (six) and 9 (nine).
2) Readiness, which includes the capability of placement in situations where there will be a movement or series of movements. This ability includes both physical and spiritual. For example the start position race run.
3) Guided movements, including the ability to perform the movement according to the example, or motion imitation. For example imitating the motion of dance, making a circle on the pattern.
4) Movement that is familiar, includes the ability to do gerakangerakan without examples. For example doing a high jump with the right.
5) Complex movement, which includes the ability to perform movements or skills consisting of many stages, smoothly, efficiently, and precisely. For example, dismantle pairs of equipment appropriately.
6) Adjustment of movement patterns, including the ability to make changes and adjust the pattern of gestures to the applicable special requirements. For example competing skills.
7) Creativity, including the ability to give birth to new patterns of motion on the basis of its own initiative. For example the ability to create a new creations dance.


The seven types of behavior contain a sequence of skill levels in series. These capabilities are sequences of phases in hierarchical motor learning. Learning various motion abilities can begin with the sensibilities of sorting through to the creativity of new motion patterns. This shows that psychomotor abilities include physical and mental abilities.




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Blog, Updated at: 23.16.00

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