According to Bogdan and Bikien (1982) the case study is a detailed examination of a single background or a subject or document storage or a particular event. Surachrnad (1982) limits the case study approach as an approach by focusing on a case in a comprehensive and detailed manner . While Yin (1987) provides a more technical limitation with emphasis on its characteristics. Ary, Jacobs, and Razavieh (1985) made it clear that in the case study the researcher should attempt to test the unit or individual in detail. The researchers tried to find all the important variables.
Based on these limits it is understood that the limits of case studies include: (1) the research objectives may be human, events, background, and documents; (2) the goals are examined in depth as a totality according to their respective background or context in order to distinguish between the various relationships among the variables.
Susilo Rahardjo & Gudnanto (2011: 250) case study is a method to comprehend individuals who are done in an integrative and comprehensive way to obtain a deep understanding of the individual and the problems he faces with the objectives of the problem can be resolved and obtain good self-development.
A similar opinion conveyed by Bimo Walgito (2010: 92) case study is a method for investigating or studying an individual event (curriculum vitae). In this case study method required a lot of information to obtain materials that are rather broad. This method is an integration of data obtained by other methods.
While W.S Winkel & Sri Hastuti (2006: 311) stated that case study in the framework of guidance services is a method to study the state and development of students in complete and in-depth, with the aim of understanding student's individuality well and help him in further development.
From the above understanding can be concluded that case study is a method of collecting data comprehensively covering physical and psychological aspects of the individual, with the aim of gaining a deep and comprehensive understanding.
B. Types of Case Studies
Historical case studies of the organization, focused on the attention of certain organizations and within a certain time, by tracing the development of its organization. This case study is often less likely to be held, because the source is insufficient to work on at a minimum.
The case study of observation, prioritizing data collection techniques through participant observation, while the focus of the study on a particular organization .. The parts of the organization that became the focus of his study include: (a) a certain place in the school; (B) a group of students; (C) school activities.
A case study of living history, which attempts to interview one person with the intention of collecting the first person's narrative with a distinctive historical possession. Live history interviews usually reveal the concept of a career, the devotion of one's life, from birth to the present.
Case study of community, is a study of community cases focused on a neighboring environment or community, not a particular organization.
Case study of situation analysis, this case study type attempts to analyze the situation against a particular event or event. For example the occurrence of student expenditure at a particular school, it must be learned from the perspective of all relevant parties, ranging from the students themselves, their friends, parents, principals, teachers and perhaps other key figures.
Microethnography, is a type of case study conducted on a very small organizational unit, such as a section of a classroom or a very specific organizational activity in children who are learning to draw.
C. Purpose of Case Study
As is the case with other research objectives in general, researchers who use case study methods aim to understand the objects they examine. However, unlike other studies, case study research is aimed specifically at explaining and understanding the object that it examines specifically as a 'case'. Related to this, Yin (2003a, 2009) states that the purpose of using case study research is not just to explain what the object is being studied, but to explain how it exists and why it can occur. In other words, case study research is not just answering research questions about what the object is, but more thoroughly and comprehensively is about 'how' and 'why' (meaning) the obtek occurs and is formed as a And can be viewed as a case. Meanwhile, other research strategies or tends to answer the question who (who), what (what), where (where), how many (how many) and how much (how much).
Meanwhile, Stake (2005) states that case study research aims to reveal the uniqueness or uniqueness of the characteristics contained in the case studied. The case itself is the cause of the case study research, therefore, the main objective and focus of the case study research is In the case of the object of research. Therefore, everything related to the case, such as the nature of the case, the activities, the functions, the historical, the physical environmental conditions of the case, and other matters relating to and influencing the case should be examined, in order for the purpose to explain and understand the existence of the case to be achieved Comprehensive and comprehensive.
In particular, with regard to case characteristics as research objects, VanWynsberghe and Khan (2007) explain that the purpose of case study research is to give the reader his report on 'it feels to be in and involved in an event', by providing a very detailed contextual analysis of events The. For that reason, case study researchers should carefully describe the event by providing insights and other things and describing the specificity of the event. For more details, note the following quote:
Case studies aim to give the reader a sense of "being there" by providing a highly detailed, contextualized analysis of an "an instance in action". The researcher carefully delineates the "instance," defining it in general terms and teasing out its particularities (VanWynsberghe and Khan, 2007, 4).
D. Learn more about Case Studies
Often questions arise about a case study research problem. The question is not only from students but also from other parties who have a research interest.
In qualitative research tradition is known case study terminology as a kind of research. Case studies are defined as methods or strategies in research to uncover specific cases. There is also another sense, the result of a study of a particular case. If the first sense refers more to the research strategy, then the second understanding is more on the research results. In this short presentation is described the first sense.
In addition to case studies, there are phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and etnometodology that fall into qualitative research variants. The case study research focuses on one particular object that is raised as a case to be studied in depth so as to unravel the reality behind the phenomenon. For, the visible is essentially not something that is real (reality). It's just the reflection of the one inside.
As is usually the data acquisition in qualitative research, case study data can be obtained from all parties concerned, either through interviews, observation, participation, and documentation. Data obtained from various ways is essentially to complement each other. There are times when the data obtained from the interview is incomplete, so it must be sought through other means, such as observation, and participation.
In contrast to quantitative research methods that emphasize the number or quantity of samples from the population studied, on the contrary case study case study emphasizes the depth of understanding of the problem under study. Therefore, case study methods are carried out intensively, in detail and deeply against a particular phenomenon or phenomenon with a narrow scope. Despite the narrow scope, the dimensions being excavated should be broad, covering various aspects so that none of the aspects are left behind. Therefore, in case studies it is highly irrelevant questions such as how many subjects are studied, how many schools, and how many samples and so on. It should be noted that as a variant of qualitative research, case study research emphasizes the depth of the subject rather than the number of subjects studied.
As with the nature of qualitative research methods in general, case study methods should also be conducted against ongoing events or symptoms. Not a symptom or event that has been completed (ex post facto). Unit of analysis can be individuals, groups, institutions or communities.
It needs to be practiced part and whole concept in case study type research. What does it mean? Case study research should be done dialectically between part and whole. That is, to understand certain aspects need to get a general idea about that aspect. On the contrary, to obtain a general picture, it is necessary to understand the specific parts in depth.
To gain in-depth knowledge, case study data can be obtained not only from the cases studied, but also from all those who know and know the case well. Data or information can be from many sources, but it needs to be limited only to the case under study. To obtain in-depth information on a case, a reliable informant who qualifies as an informant is required, ie maximum variety, ie people who know a lot about the problem under study, although not necessarily have high academic degree.
The question that often arises is what distinguishes case study research from other research? Case study studies emphasize the depth of analysis in specific, more specific cases. This method is very appropriate to be used to understand certain phenomena in a particular place and a certain time too. For example, about specific teaching methods, in certain educational institutions within a certain time (which are still in process).
Another question that is not less frequent is what the case study research results can be generalized or generally applicable. Honestly I am troubled by the question. For, in addition to the term generalization is not known in qualitative research methods, case study results are not intended to be generalized, because the scope is narrow.
As its equivalent is known the term transferability, ie the results of that study may apply elsewhere when other places have similar characteristics to the place or locus where the research was conducted. Such transferability can be done if research can be up to formal findings, not just substantive.
Generally the research only ends on substantive findings, ie when the proposed problem has been answered based on the data. In fact, there is one more step that must be passed if the research is expected to be a good scientific work, namely the stage of formal findings, in the form of a thesis statement of the results of substantive findings abstraction. Good luck!
E. Evaluation in Case study
Stake (1995) states that a case study requires extensive verification through triangulation and member checks. Stake suggests triangulation of information that seeks to concentrate information directly related to "data conditions" in developing a case study. Triangulation helps researchers to check the validity of data through Checking and benchmarking the data. Further Stake "offers" triangulation from Denzin (1970) that distinguishes four kinds of tringulation as an examination technique that utilizes the use of data sources, researchers, theories and methodologies.
For member checks, Stake recommends researchers to check with the members involved in this case study study and represent their peers to react in their own views and situations to the data that the researcher has organized. Stake further provides a "checklist of criticisms" for case study reports and divides them into 20 criteria to assess a good case study report as follows:
· Is the report easy to read?
· Is the report generally appropriate, ie each sentence contributes to the overall report?
· Does the report have a conceptual structure (eg theme or issue)?
· Are the issues developed seriously and scientifically?
· Is the case well defined?
· Is there a story in the presentation?
· Does the reader provide insights from some of his representative experiences?
· Are quotes used effectively?
· Are heading, figures, instruments, attachments, indexes used effectively?
· Is the report edited properly?
· Is the reader advised to make a statement either through or under interpretation?
· Has adequate attention been paid to a variety of contexts?
· Will good raw data be displayed?
· Are the data sources well chosen and sufficient?
· Are the observations and interpretations that have emerged been triumphant?
· Does the researcher's role and perspective appear well?
· Will the "nature" of the intended audience appear?
· Is empathy addressed for all aspects?
· Is the author's personal intentions reviewed?
· Does the report appear and risk individuals?
While Robert K.Yin proposed the procedure of case study report as follows: (1) when and how to start a writing; (2) case identification: real or subtle; (3) a case study review: a validation procedure. To compile a story in a case study, Asmussen & Creswell (1995) tried to study a qualitative case study of "campus response to a shooter student" through a substantive case report from Lincoln & Guba. This Lincoln & Guba format starts with:
1. Prove an explanation of the problem, a detailed description of the context or the observed settings and processes, a discussion of important elements and ultimately compiling research results through "lessons learned".
2. After introducing the case study with the problem of violence on campus, then the author gives a detailed description of the setting and chronological events. Then move on to the important themes that emerged in the analysis. This theme is divided into two themes: organizational themes and psychological or socio-psychological themes.
3. Collect data through interviews with informants, observations, documentation and audio-visual materials. By asking the following things: What happened? What is involved in the eventual response? What theme of response emerged for 8 months ?; What constructororiitis is uniquely developed in this case?
4. Narrative describes events by linking the context to the wider work framework
5. Perform case verification using multiple data sources for a theme through triangulation and member checking.
John W. Creswell. (1998). Qualitative Inquiry And Research Design: ChoosingAmong Five Traditions. London: SAGE Publications
Rahardjo, Susilo & Gudnanto.(2011). Pemahaman Individu Teknik Non Tes. Kudus: Nora Media Enterprise
Robert K. Yin. (1989). Case Study Research Design and Methods. Washington: COSMOS Corporation
Walgito, Bimo. (2010). Bimbingan dan Konseling Studi & Karir. Yogjakarta: Andi
Winkel, WS & Hastuti, Sri.(2004). Bimbingan dan Konseling Di Institusi Pendidikan. Yogjakarta: Media Abadi.