Posted by PENDIDIKAN KEWARGANEGARAAN on Tuesday, November 22, 2016

1. Introduction

The advancement of information and communications technology that developed so rapidly in the era of globalization, brought a very radical change. The change has had an impact on every aspect of life, including the education and learning system. The impact of this extraordinary change is the formation of a 'global cumon', even worse because the global community is arriving much faster than calculated: the information revolution has brought a truly hyper-reality new world.

As a result of such rapid changes, humans can no longer depend only on a constant set of values, beliefs and patterns of social activity. Human beings are continually forced to reassess positions in relation to these factors in order to build a possible or perhaps possible social-personal construction. If people are able to survive the challenges of change in this world of knowledge, technology, communication and socio-cultural construction, then we must develop new processes to deal with these new problems. We can no longer depend on past answers because the answers are so fast as they do not work with the changes. Knowledge, methods, and skills are becoming obsolete almost simultaneously with the time these things deliver results. Degeng (1998) states that we have entered the era of chaos. The era came so suddenly and nobody could resist it. We must enter in it and be tortured. The era of chaos can not be answered with the paradigm of order, certainty, and order. The era of chaos has to be answered with a clutter paradigm. The era of chaos is based on constructivist theory and concept; A theory of learning that is now widely embraced in the education community in the US. The most important element in constructivism is freedom and diversity. Freedom in question is the freedom to make choices in accordance with pa capable and willing to be done by the learners. The diversity in question is that the learner realizes that the individual is different from other people / groups, and the other person / group is different from the individual.

This alternative approach to learning for Indonesia is putting reform as the discourse of nation and state life, not only in education, but also in all fields. During this time, our discourse is behavioristic oriented towards uniformity that ultimately forms Indonesian people who are very difficult to appreciate the differences. Different behavior is more viewed as a mistake to be punished. Indonesian human behavior has been infected with viruses of similarity, virus regularity, and further this virus that control our behavior in nation and state.

Longworth (1999) summarizes this phenomenon by stating: 'We need to change our focus and what needs to be learned into how to learn. The change that must occur is a change from content to process. Learning how to learn to learn something becomes more important than the facts and learned concepts themselves'.

Education, therefore, should prepare individuals to be ready to live in a world where problems arise much faster than the answer to the problem, where the uncertainty and ambiguity of change can be faced openly, where individuals have the skills Which it needs to continually adjust their relationship to an ever-changing world, and where each and every one of us becomes the giver of meaning for our existence. Beare & Slaughter (1993) suggests, 'This not only means new techniques in education, but also a new goal. The purpose of education must be to develop a society in which people can live more comfortably with change than with certainty. In the world to come, the ability to deal with new things is precisely more important than the ability to know and repeat old things.

The need for a new orientation in this education feels so strong and real in many fields of study, both in the field of exact sciences and the social sciences. Educators, education practitioners and all of us, inevitably have to respond to the changes that occur by changing the educational paradigm. To answer and overcome the changes that occur continuously, the alternative that can be used is constructivist paradigmna

2. The Nature of Behavioristic Learning and Constructivistic / Constructivist Learning

a. The Nature of Behavioristic Learning

Thornike, one of Behavioristic Behaviorists, states that learning is an occurrence of associations between the events of the stimulus (S) and the response given to the stimulus. Thorndike's statement is based on his experimental results in a laboratory that uses several types of animals such as cats, dogs, monkeys, and chickens. According to him, from different situations given by an animal will give a number of responses, and actions that can be formed depend on the strength of the connection or the bonds between the situation and a particular response. Then he concludes that all human behavior both mind and action can be analyzed in parts of two simple structures, namely stimulus and response. Thus, according to this view the basis of learning is the formation of an association between the stimulus and the response. Therefore, according to Hudojo (1990: 14) Thondike theory is called association theory.

Furthermore, Thorndike (in Orton 1991: 39-40; Resnick, 1981: 13) suggests that the association between stimulus and response follows the following laws: (1) The law of exercise, that is, when the association between the stimulus And serting response occurs, then the association will form stronger. This interpretation of the law is the more often a knowledge - which has been formed by the association between stimulus and response - trained (used), then the association will be stronger; (2) Law of effect, ie if the association formed between stimulus and response is followed by a satisfaction then the association will increase. This means (ideally), if a response given by a person to a stimulus is true and he knows it, then satisfaction will be achieved and the association will be strengthened.

Adherents of other behavioral psychology that is Skinner, argue almost similar to the laws resulting from Thorndike. He argues that the most important element in learning is reinforcement. The point is that knowledge is generated through stimulus bonds - the response gets stronger when reinforced. Skinner divides this gain into two, positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement. Positive reinforcement as a stimulus, if its representation accompanies a behavior that tends to increase the occurrence of repetition of that behavior. While negative reinforcement is a stimulus that is eliminated / abolished because it tends to strengthen behavior (Bell, 1981: 151).

b. The nature of learning Constructivism

The formation of knowledge according to constructivism views the active subject of creating cognitive structures in their interactions with the environment. With the help of this cognitive structure, the subject compiles a sense of reality. Cognitive interaction will occur as far as reality is structured through the cognitive structure created by the subject itself. The cognitive structure must always be altered and adapted according to the demands of the environment and the changing organism. The process of self-adjustment occurs continuously through the reconstruction process.

The most important thing in constructivism theory is that in the learning process, the learners must get the emphasis. They should actively develop their knowledge, not learners or others. Those who must be responsible for the learning outcomes. Active emphasis on student learning needs to be developed. Students 'creativity and activity will help them to stand alone in the students' cognitive life.

Learn more directed to experimental learning is a humanitarian adaptation based on concrete experience in the laboratory, discussion with classmates, who then contemplated and made ideas and the development of new concepts. Therefore the accentuation of educating and teaching is not focused on the educator but on the learners.

Some of the things that concern constructivist learning are: (1) prioritizing real learning in the relevant context, (2) giving priority to the process, (3) inculcating learning in the context of social experience, (4) learning is done in order to construct experience (Pranata , Http://puslit.petra.ac.id/journals/interior/.).

The nature of constructivist learning by Brooks & Brooks in Degeng says that knowledge is non-objective, temporary, constantly changing, and uncertain. Learning is seen as the compilation of knowledge from concrete experiences, collaborative activities, and reflections and interpretations. Teaching means organizing the environment so that learners are motivated in exploring meaning and appreciating uncertainty. On this basis then the learner will have a different understanding of the knowledge stuck in his experience, and the perspective used in interpreting it.

3. Aspects of Constructivistic / Constructivist Learning

Fornot poses the following constructivist aspects: adaptation, concept of envieronmet, and the construction of meaning. From the three aspects mentioned by J. Piaget means that the adaptation to the environment is done through two processes, namely assimilation and accommodation.

Assimilation is a cognitive process whereby a person integrates perceptions, concepts or new experiences into the scheme or pattern already in his mind. Assimilation is seen as a cognitive process that locates and classifies new events or stimuli in existing schemes. This assimilation process continues. Assimilation will not cause change / turn of the schemata but the development of the schemata. Assimilation is one of the individual processes in adapting and organizing themselves to the new environment the person's understanding develops.

Accommodations, in the face of new stimuli or experiences one can not assimilate new experiences with the schemata they already have. The new experience is biased so completely unsuited to the existing scheme. Under such circumstances people will make accommodation. Accommodations occur to form new schemes that match new stimuli or modify existing schemes to fit the stimulus. For Piaget adaptation is an equilibrium between assimilation and accommodation. When in the process of assimilation a person can not make an adaptation to his environment then there is disequilibrium (disequilibrium). As a result of the imbalance, the existing accommodation and cognitive structure will be experienced or the emergence of new structures. This intellectual growth is an ongoing process of disequilibrium and equilibrium. But if there is equilibrium then the individual will be at a higher level than before.

This level of knowledge or tiered knowledge by Vygotskian is called scaffolding. Scaffolding, means giving an individual a large amount of help during the early stages of learning and then reducing the aid and giving the child an opportunity to take on a greater responsibility as soon as he or she is able to do it on their own. The learner's assistance can be guidance, warning, encouragement, outlining problems into other forms that enable students to be independent. Vygotsky proposed three categories of student achievement in his attempt to solve problems, namely (1) students achieve success well, (2) students achieve success with help, (3) students fail success. Scaffolding, means a learner's effort to guide students in their efforts to achieve success. Teacher encouragement is needed so that student achievement to a higher level becomes optimum.

Vygotskian constructivism considers that knowledge is collaboratively constructed between individuals and the circumstances can be adapted by each individual. The process in cognition is directed through intellectual adaptation in the social cultural context. The adjustment process is equivalent to the intra-individual knowledge construction through the internal self-regulation process. In this connection, Vygotskian constructivists place more emphasis on the application of inter-individual exchange of ideas.

Two important principles derived from Vygotsky's theory are: (1), about the function and importance of language in social communication which begins the process of signaling to exchange of information and knowledge, (2) the zone of proximal development. Learners as mediators have a role encouraging and bridging students in their efforts to build knowledge, understanding and competence.

An important contribution to Vygotsky's theory is the emphasis on the nature of sociocultural learning. Vygotsky's core theory is to emphasize the interaction between internal and external aspects of learning and its emphasis on the social environment of learning. According to Vygotsky's theory, human cognitive function comes from the social interaction of each individual in a cultural context. Vygotsky also believes that learning occurs when students work on uncharted tasks but these tasks are within reach of their abilities or those tasks are within their zone of proximal development. Zone of proximal development is an inter-real level of development that is defined as the ability to solve problems independently and the level of potential development that is defined as problem solving skills under the guidance of more capable adults or peers. Such tiered knowledge as in the following scheme.
1) Effective habits of mind
2) Cooperative colaborative
3) Effective communication
4) Information processing
5) Complex thinking

Knowledge and understanding are constructed when one is socially engaged in dialogue and active in experiments and experiences. The formation of meaning is interpersonal dialogue. In this case learners not only need access to physical experience but also interaction with the experience possessed by other individuals. Cooperative learning (cooperative learning) is emerging when students work together to achieve the desired learning objectives by students. Classroom management according to cooperative learning aims to help students to develop intentions and tips to work together and interact with other students. There are three important things to consider in classroom management: grouping, co-operative semanggar and class arrangement. (Pranata, http://puslit.petra.ac.id/journals/interior/.

Briefly the theory of Peaget and Vygotsky can be put forward in the following table.

Table Piagetian and Vygotskyan Constructivism

Piagetian Constructivism
Vygotsky Constructivism
constructivism focus on individual cognitive development through co-constructed learning environments with national, decontextualized thinking as the goal of development
Vygotsky, in order to understand human development, a multilevel analysis using all four levels of history must be employed: sosiocultural constructivism,
Subject of Study
Focus on the development of autonomous cognitive forms within the individual, culminating in rational thought that is decentered from the individual.
argued that individual development cannot be understood without reference to the interpersonal and institutional surround which situates the child
Develop-ment of cognitive forms
the structure of the mind is the source of our understanding of the world.
the construction of knowledge occurs through interaction in the social world. Thus for Vygotsky the development of cognitive forms occurs by means of the dialectical relationship between the individual and the social context

4. Constructivist Learning Design

Based on the theory of J. Peaget and Vygotsky which has been stated above, the learning can be designed / designed constructivist learning model in the classroom as follows:

First, identify prior knowledge and misconceptions. Initial identification of the intuitive idea they have in their environment is nurtured to find out the possibilities of misconceptions that encounter students' cognitive structures. This identification is done by the initial test, interview

Second, the preparation of learning programs. The learning program is described in the form of a lesson unit.

Third orientation and elicitation, a conducive and exciting learning situation is necessary to be created in the early stages of learning to arouse their interest in the topic to be discussed. Students are guided so that they will express as many intuitive ideas as possible about the physical phenomena they observe in their daily environment. The disclosure of ideas can be through discussion, writing, illustration of images and so on. The ideas are then considered together. The learning atmosphere is relaxed and not scary so that students are not afraid of being ridiculed and laughed at if their ideas are wrong. Teachers must refrain from judging them. The truth of the student's ideas will be answered and revealed by itself through reasoning in the stage of cognitive conflict.

Fourth, reflection. At this stage, the various misconceptions that arise at the stage of orientation and elicitation are defined by misconceptions that have been nurtured at an early stage. These misconceptions are classified by their error rate and consistency to facilitate restructuring.

Fifth, the restructuring of ideas, (a) challenges, students are given questions about the symptoms that can then be exhibited or investigated in the lab. They are asked to predict the results of the experiment and provide a reason to support that prediction. (B) cognitive conflicts and class discussions. Students will see for themselves whether their predictions are right or wrong. They are encouraged to test their beliefs by experimenting. If their forecast misses, they will experience cognitive conflict and begin to be dissatisfied with their ideas. Then they are encouraged to think of the simplest explanation that can explain as much as possible the symptoms they have seen. Attempt to seek this explanation is done by confrontation process through discussion with friend or teacher on its capacity as facilitator and mediator. (C) rebuilding the conceptual framework. Students are led to discover for themselves that the new concepts have internal consistency. Show that the new scientific concept has the advantage of the old idea.

Sixth, the app. Convince students of the benefits of switching conceptions from misconceptions to scientific conception. Advise them to apply their scientific concepts in a variety of situations to solve instructive problems and then test empirical solutions. They will be able to explicitly compare their misconceptions with scholarly descriptions.

Seventh, the review was conducted to review the success of the learning strategy that has taken place in the effort to reduce the misconceptions that emerged at the beginning of the lesson. A revision of a learning strategy is made when the resonant misconceptions are resilient. This is important so that the resistant misconceptions do not always overcome the cognitive structure, which will ultimately lead to learning difficulties and low student achievement.

5. Closing
Based on the above explanation, to overcome various problems in the learning of the more complicated, the behavioristic learning that has been used for years, seems unable to answer all the problems of learning, it is necessary to find alternative learning that is more able to overcome all the problems of learning Which exists, one of which is the constructivist approach that has been described. This approach appreciates the differences, appreciates the uniqueness of the invidual, appreciates diversity in receiving and interpreting knowledge.

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