|MOTIVATION STUDY OF STUDENT LEARNING|
The word motivation comes from the word "motive", which means the reason to do something, a force that causes a person to move on an activity. In Dictionary of Indonesian Language (Depdikbud, 1996: 593), motivation is defined as an impulse that arises in a conscious or unconscious person to perform an action with a specific purpose.Sondang P. Siagian (2004: 138), provides the definition of motivation as the driving force Which resulted in someone willing and willing to mobilize the ability, energy and time in order to achieve goals that have been predetermined.
Thus motivation is the efforts that can cause a person or a group of people to move to do something desire to achieve the desired goals or get satisfaction with his actions. For that, motivation is an internal process that activates, guides, and retains behavior within a certain time span. In other words, motivation is what makes us do, keeps us going and determines which arena we want to do.
Motivation can be regarded as the influence of need and desire on the intensity and direction of someone who moves the person to achieve the goal of a certain level. According to Mc. Donald is quoted by Oemar Hamalik (2002: 1973), motivation is a change of energy in a person's self that is marked by the emergence of affective, and reaction to achieve the goal, as well as encouragement from within a person and this drive is the driving force.
Therefore, motivation as an inner process or psychological process that occurs in a person is strongly influenced by external factors (environment), and internal factors inherent in each person (carriage), education level, past experience, wishes or expectations of the future.
Based on the above understanding, it can be concluded that the motivation is a process of change of power within the individual that gives strength for him to behave (with hard learning) in an effort to achieve learning objectives.
While learning is a basic process of the development of human life, with human learning to make qualitative changes of the individual so that his behavior develops. All the activities and achievements of human life are nothing but the result of learning, because one lives and works according to what has been learned. Learning is not just an experience, learning is a process, not a result. Therefore, learning takes place actively and integratively by using various forms of action to achieve results.
W.S Winkel (1996: 53) says that learning is a mental / psychic activity that takes place in an active interaction with the environment, resulting in changes, knowledge, understanding, skills and attitudinal values, and that change is relatively constant and constant. While the intended motivation to learn is the desire to activate, move, channel and direct attitudes and behavior of individuals to learn.
Nana Sudjana (1988: 17) says that learning is a process marked by the changes that exist in a person, change as a result, and learning can be shown in various forms, such as changes in knowledge, attitude changes and behavior.
While Crow is quoted by A. Tabrani R (1994: 121), clarify the importance of student learning motivation or motivation in learning, namely that learning must be motivated in various ways so that interest in learning is built on interest that already exist in children .
Therefore, in general the motivation contains the following values:
a. Motivation determines the level of success or failure of student learning, because learning without motivation, difficult to succeed.
b. Motivated teaching, is essentially a teaching tailored to the needs, drives, motives, and interests that exist in the students. Such teaching, in accordance with democratic demands in education.
c. Teaching is motivated according to creativity and imagination for teachers to strive seriously in searching for relevant and harmonious ways to generate and nurture students' motivation to learn. Teachers should always try to make the students in the end have good motivation.
d. Success or failure in growing and using motivation in teaching is closely related to the setting in the classroom.
e. The principle of motivation becomes an integral part of the teaching principles. The use of motivation in teaching not only complements the teaching procedures, but also the decisive factor of effective teaching. Thus, the use of motivational principles is essential in the learning process.
Here are some definitions or understanding of motivation to learn according to experts
According to H. Mulyadi (Mulyadi, Educational Psychology, Scientific Bureau, FT IAIN Sunan Ampel, Malang, 1991: 87) states that the definition or understanding of learning motivation is to arouse and provide a direction of encouragement that causes the individual to perform the act of learning
According to Tadjab, (Tadjab MA Ilmu Pendidikan, Karya Abditama Surabaya 1990: 102) understanding of learning motivation is the overall driving force within the students that leads to learning activities, ensuring the continuity of learning activities in order to achieve a goal.
According to Sardiman (1988: 75) said that: Definition or understanding Learning motivation is the overall driving force in the student self that leads to learning activities, which ensures the continuity of the learning activities and gives direction to the learning activities, so that the desired goal by the learning subject is achieved
According to (Bophy, 1987) the definition or understanding of learning motivation is as a general state and as a situationspecific state As a general state, learning motivation is a permanent character that encourages one to master knowledge and skills in a learning activity. As a situation-specific state, learning motivation arises because the involvement of individuals in a particular activity is directed by the purpose of acquiring knowledge or mastering the skills being taught.
According to McCombs (1991) understanding of learning motivation is a naturally formed internal capability that can be enhanced or nurtured through activities that provide support, provide opportunities to choose activities, give responsibility for controlling the learning process, and provide learning tasks that are useful and appropriate With personal needs.
According to Afifudin (in Ridwan, 2008), understanding of motivation to learn is the overall driving force in the child that is able to cause enthusiasm or enthusiasm to learn
According to Winkel (2003) in Puspitasari (2012) the definition or understanding of learning motivation is any effort within oneself that leads to learning activities, and ensure the continuity of learning activities and give direction to the activities of learning activities so that the desired goal is achieved. Learning motivation is a psychological factor that is non intellectual and plays a role in growing the spirit of learning for individuals.
According Clayton Alderfer in Hamdhu (2011) understanding of learning motivation is the tendency of students in doing all learning activities are driven by the desire to achieve the achievement or learning outcomes as possible.
Forms of Student Motivation
Motivation grows and develops in a person, generally by the way as follows: 1) Comes in the individual itself or is called the Motivation Instrinsic (Motivation Learning Instrinsic); 2) Comes from the environment or is it Extrinsic Motivation (Extrinsic Learning Motivation)
1. Motivation Instrinsics (Motivation Learning Instrinsik)
This type of motivation arises as a result of within the individual himself without any coercion and encouragement from others, but on his own volition, such as students learn because they want to know the ins and outs of a problem as complete as possible, want to be educated, all desire is based on Appreciating the needs of students' efforts, through learning activities to meet those needs. But now this need can only be met by enterprising learning, there is no other way to become an educated person or an expert, another to learn. Usually learning activities are accompanied by interest and feelings of pleasure. W.S. Winkel says that: "Intrinsic motivation is a form of motivation derived from within the learning subject." 10 But the formation of intrinsic motivation usually others also hold a role, such as a parent or teacher to awaken the child to the link between learning and being knowledgeable. Even though that consciousness at some point begins to arise from within oneself, the influence of the educator has contributed to instilling that consciousness. The peculiarity of extrinsic motivation is the fact that the only way to achieve a set goal is to learn.
2. Extrinsic Motivation (Extrinsic Learning Motivation)
This type of motivation arises from the influence of the outside of the individual, whether by invitation, order or coercion from others so that with such conditions he ultimately wants to learn. Winkel says "Extrinsic Motivation, learning activities are initiated and passed on based on needs and drives that are not absolutely related to self-learning activities".
It should be emphasized that the drive or driving force is learning, sourced from appreciation or a need, but that need can actually be affected by other activities, not necessarily through learning. The motivation to learn always stems from an individual's own needs, although others play a role in generating that motivation, which is typical in extrinsic motivation is not the presence or absence of outside influences, but whether the needs to be fulfilled can basically only be met by other. Based on the above description, the motivation to learn extrinsic can be classified as follows:
a. Learn to fulfill obligations.
b. Learn to avoid punishment.
c. Learn to get the promised material prize.
d. Learn to increase social prestige.
e. Learn to gain praise from important people (teachers and parents).
f. Learning for the demands of the position you want to hold or to meet the requirements of increase level / class of administration.
Based on the source and process of development, then the motivation or motive according to Abin Syamsudin Makmun (2001: 75) can be classified into two, namely:
1) Primary motive (primary motive) or basic motive (basic motive), showing the motives that are not studied. This motif is often also called the term drive (drive), and this motive class is differentiated into:
A) Physiological impulse (primary motive) that is sourced from organic need (organic need) which include among others hunger, thirst, sex, activity, breathing and rest.
B) The general drive (morgani's general drive) and the emergency motive (wodworth's emergency motive), including the encouragement of affection, fear, admiration and curiosity.
2) Secondary motive (secondary motive), showing the motives that develop in the individual because of experience, and learned (conditioning and reinforcement), which include:
A) Fear learned (learned fear),
B) Social motives (want to be accepted, appreciated, approval, status, feeling secure, etc.),
C) Objective and interes motive (exploration, manipulation, interest),
D) Purpose and aspiration,
E) Motive achievement (achievement motive).
According to WS. Winkel (1983: 27) student learning motivation is a non-intellectual psychic factor, his unique role is the passion or enthusiasm of learning, so that a strongly motivated student, he will have a lot of energy to do the learning activities. Thus, students who have strong motivation, he will have the spirit and passion of learning is high, and in turn will be able to achieve high learning achievement.
A student learns because driven by his mental strength, the mental power of desire, attention, will, or ideals, and mental strength, can be low and high. Motivation is seen as a mental impulse that moves and directs human behavior, including learning behavior. In motivation depends on the desire to activate, move, channel and direct attitude and behavior learn. There are at least two major components in motivation, namely need, encouragement and purpose.
Students who are motivated, he will make reactions that direct him to the effort to achieve goals and will reduce the tension generated by the energy inside him. In other words, the motivation to lead itself to the reactions reaches the goal, for example to be appreciated and acknowledged by others.
Factors that come from outside the individual that affects a student in learning, among which is the influence of parents. Parents are the ones who first educate their children before they get education from others. Likewise with the fulfillment of spiritual (intrinsic) and physical (extrinsic) needs for a child, then the parents are responsible for the first time.
In educating and meeting the needs of their children, it takes the attention of parents. A key role for parents in the family environment, the most important is to provide first-time experience in childhood, because first experience is an important factor in the child's personal development.
As for a child, when doing the learning process there are two factors that become the driving force, namely extrinsic motivation, namely the motivation that comes from outside the self and intrinsic motivation that comes from within the child itself. A child who studies with low motivation or even no motivation, will be difficult to be accomplished, children feel quickly satisfied with the results obtained, apathetic, not creative and not focused.
Under these conditions, the role of parents as a motivator is required to be able to generate motivation to learn their children so that all the potential of the child is expressed in the form of learning behaviors. Parents' efforts to help build motivation to learn in their children, is not an easy effort because the motivation to learn this should actually have begun to be implanted parents to their children from a small. Thus, the child is expected to have an awareness of the importance of learning for himself.
‘Based on the above description, it can be drawn a conclusion that the attention given to the child's parents will affect the motivation of student learning. The influence, depending on how much attention parents give to their children. When the attention given by parents is great, it will encourage the emergence of motivation to learn in their children, and vice versa. Where in the end, the learning achievement of children in school who get attention from parents is better than the achievement of children who received less attention from parents. Thus, it can be assumed that there is a significant influence from the attention of parents to student learning motivation.
Learning Motivation Indicators
Here are some of the Motivation Learning Indicators, among others
1) Discipline; Discipline is to train and educate (including the mental and moral lessons) of the people on the rules for compliance and then to be able to walk orderly and regularly within the organization. "Discipline is a training and education for students to be happy to carry out their duties accordingly With the teacher's orders at school.
2) Satisfaction; Learning satisfaction is the way a student perceives what he or she is learning can be beneficial to him / her. Satisfaction is a generalization of attitudes toward the task that is based on aspects of the task. A student who gained satisfaction from his learning will maintain his learning achievement.
3) Security; A sense of security is very influential on the spirit of student learning because it is safe will cause peace to students in performing their duties as students. The meaning of security is: (a) safe to face the future such as having a high value, and (b) a sense of security in the learning places, possessions, and learning facilities from the school. A sense of security in the place of learning is an atmosphere of calm feeling when students carry out their duties in the study room. The atmosphere can be seen from the behavior of students while performing their duties. They do not feel threatened and depressed either from above, fellow students, and outsiders. Students' belongings and inventory of learning facilities abandoned in the study room and in the learning environment are safe.
Factors Influencing Learning Motivation
The factors that influence the motivation to learn to students there are various kinds. According to Sardiman (2007: 92), that affect the motivation of learning in students are: the level of learning motivation, the level of learning needs, interests and personal traits. The four factors are mutually supportive and arise in the students so as to create the spirit of learning to perform activities so as to achieve the goals fulfill their needs.
According Dimyati & Mudjiono (2004: 89), the elements that influence the motivation to learn are:
1. Students' aspirations or aspirations
Motivation to learn looks at the wishes of children since childhood. The success of reaching that desire fosters the will of the mind, even the future of the ideals in life. In terms of emancipation of independence, a satisfied desire can enlarge the will and spirit of learning. In terms of learning, reinforcement with reward or punishment will be able to turn desire into will, and then a will becomes an ideal.
2. Students' ability
The desire of a child needs to be accompanied by the ability or ability to achieve it. Ability will strengthen the child's motivation to carry out developmental tasks.
3. Condition of the student
The condition of students covering the physical and spiritual condition greatly influences the learning motivation.
4. Student environmental conditions
Student environment in the form of state of nature, environment of residence, peer socialization, social life. With the condition of the environment is safe, peaceful, orderly and beautiful then the spirit and motivation to learn easily strengthened.
5. Dynamic elements in learning and learning
Students have feelings, concerns, wills, memories, thoughts that change through life experiences. Experience with peers affects motivation and learning behavior.
6. The teacher's effort in teaching the students
Teacher is a professional educator. He hangs out every day with tens or hundreds of students. As an educator, the teacher can memilil andmemilah good. Participation and role modeling of good behavior is already an effort to teach and motivate students.
How to Measure Student Learning Motivation and Student Motivation Indicators
One of them is good enough to describe the interest and motivation of student learning is Keller, 1987.John Keller based on his proposed model has made an instrument of interest measurement and learning motivation.Ia describe the interest of learning and motivation of student learning through 4 main components, in accordance with the model name Served by ARCS (Attention, Relenvace, Confidence, Satisfaction), or in Indonesian: Attention (Attention), Relevance (Suitability), Confidence, and Satisfaction.
In addition to the ARCS model, you can create your own Questionnaire to measure student learning motivation. The indicators that can be used for the preparation of the Questionnaire, as proposed by Makmun (2010), namely:
1. Duration of activities (how long is the use of time to do activities).
2. Frequency of activities (how often are activities within a certain time period).
3. Persistence (determination and attachment) on the purpose of the activity.
4. Devotion (devotion) and sacrifice (money, energy, mind, even soul and his life).
5. His fortitude, tenacity, and ability to deal with obstacles and difficulties to achieve goals.
6. Level of aspiration (purpose, plan, goals, target, or target, and ideology) to be achieved with the activities undertaken.
7. The degree of qualification of achievement or product or output achieved from its activities (how much, adequate or not, satisfactory or not).
8. Direction of attitude toward the target of activity (like or dislike, positive or negative).
Or you can make your own indicators like the following student learning motivation indicators that can be used in action research are as follows:
1. Seriousness of students in following lessons
2. Students' willingness to provide the tools or resources / learning materials needed
3. Student involvement in group discussions
4. Student involvement in class discussions
5. Activity of students in hearing teacher explanation
6. Activity of students in doing individual tasks and groups
7. Discipline students in following the lesson
8. The emergence of curiosity and courage students
9. The desire to get the best results, especially in group discussions
10. Increased spirit or passion in students in following the lesson
Learning Motivation Theory
In this section the author will discuss about some motivation theories include:
1. The theory of Hedonism
Hedone is Greek which means joy, pleasure, pleasure. As stated by M Ngalim Purwanto that: "Hedonism is a flow within philosophy which sees that the ultimate purpose of life in man is to seek worldly pleasures" .6 According to this theoretical view of man is essentially a creature who attaches full life Pleasure and enjoyment. The one who embraces this theory every faces the problem of solving it, the person tends to choose an alternative solution that can bring pleasure from the resulting difficulties, difficulties, suffering, suffering and everything that causes discomfort.
The effect of this theory is the assumption that everyone will tend to avoid things that are difficult and self-obnoxious and that contain the things that are at risk, and prefer to do something that memories for him. For example, students in a class will applaud if they hear that a teacher who will teach math will not go in because of illness, an employee is reluctant to work well and is lazy to work, but demands high salaries and wages. And
There are many other contobh that indicate that motivation is necessary according to Hedonism theory, the students and employees in the above example should be motivated appropriately so as not to be lazy and willing to work well, with the fulfillment of his pleasure.
2. Theory of Instinct
Man as an individual lives in a world that is not himself, but absolutely necessary for his life, to meet his necessities, to live and develop, man needs food, air, science, knowledge, friendship, fellowship and so on that is related to life and life.
The forces that drive people from within to carry out the act are called instinct or impulse.
According to M. Ngalim Purwanto states that: "Instinct (impulse) is a driving force that pushes and pursues satisfaction by seeking, achieving something in the form of certain things or values".
Instinct is a power within us that pushes us forward and possess those things and values. Instinct is a life-specific form, man as a self-conscious creature, but realizing that he is being pushed, he feels that there is something within him that drives him to act and act. In the outline the instinct (instinct of lust) can be divided into three groups:
A. Instinctive instinct: self-sustaining: Seeking to eat when he is hungry, avoiding harm, keeping himself healthy, seeking self-protection for a safe life.
B. Instinct (self-impulse) develops self: The urge to know, to train and learn something he does not yet know. In humans it is this encouragement that makes human culture more advanced and higher.
C. Instinct (lust) maintains and develops the type: the human being consciously or unconsciously, always keeping the species and descendants alive and growing. This instinct is incarnated in dating and marriage. And encouragement to nurture and educate children.
By having these three basic instincts, the habits or actions and behavior of human beings who do everyday get encouraged or moved by these three instincts. Therefore, according to this theory to motivate a person must be based on which instinct to be addressed and needs to be developed. For example, a student is compelled to fight because he is often ridiculed and insulted by his friends because he is considered stupid in his class. (Self-defense instinct). In order for the learner not to evolve in a negative direction, we need to motivate, for example, to provide a situation that can encourage the child to be studious in order to match his classmates.
Often we see someone behaving in something because it is driven by more than one principal instinct at once, making it difficult for us to determine which main instinct is more dominant to induce that person to do so.
For example a student is very diligent and diligent study even though he lives in poverty with his family. What is it that encourages the student is very diligent and diligent study? Probably because he really wants to be smart (instinct of self-development) but maybe also because he wants to improve his career so that he can live with his family in time and can pay for his children (instinct to develop and maintain kind, and self-preservation) .
3. Reaction Theory
This theory holds that human action or behavior is not based on nalurinaluri, but based on patterns of behavior learned from the culture in which the person lives. People learn when many of the cultural environments in which they live and are raised. Therefore, this theory is also called the theory of cultural environment. According to this theory, if an educator (teacher) will motivate his or her students, the teacher (teacher) should know the true background of the child's life and culture.
By knowing the background of one's culture we can know the pattern of his behavior and can understand also why he reacts or behaves that may be different from others in the face of a problem. We know that the Indonesian nation consists of various tribal mavams with different cultural backgrounds. Therefore, many of the possibilities of a teacher in a school will face several different kinds of students coming from different cultural environments need different services and approaches, including service in motivating them.
4. The Theory of Driving Power
This theory is a blend of the Theory of Instinct and Theory of Reaction. The driving force is a kind of instinct, but only a vast impulse of force against a common direction, for example a driving force in the other sex. Everyone in all cultures has a driving force in the other sex. However, the methods used in teaching satisfaction with the driving force are different for each individual according to their own cultural background. Therefore, according to this theory if an educator (teacher) wants to motivate his or her students he should base it on the driving force, ie on instinct and also the reaction learned from his or her own environmental culture. Motivating protégés who live in remote and remote areas of the country are likely to be different from motivating children who grew up and live in big cities that have advanced in various fields even though the problems faced by students are the same.
5. Theory of Need
Motivation theory that is now widely embraced by people is the theory of need. This theory assumes that the action taken by man is essentially to meet his needs. Both physical needs and psychic needs. Therefore according to this theory if an educator (teacher) intends to motivate students he must try to find out first what the needs of people who will be motivated.
Today there have been many psychological theorists who have presented their theories about basic human needs. One of the theories of need that is closely related to motivation is the theory of needs hierarchy proposed by A. Maslow. Maslow puts it as quoted by Ibrahim Bafadal as: "The basic human need lies, in a continuum and hierarchical line, starting from the bottom needs to the top needs. All are classified into five basic human needs: (1) physiological needs, (2) security needs, (3) social needs, (4) self-esteem needs and (5) self-actualization needs ".
Maslow, with the theory of the Hierarchy of Needs states that: "Physiological needs are then followed by higher needs of security needs, social needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization needs. Self-actualization needs can also be called growth needs, the highest need ".
Based on what is stated above we can explain what needs are included in each level of need:
A. Physiological needs: this need is a basic, primary and vital need that concerns the basic biological functions of a human organism such as the need for food, clothing and boards, physical health, the need for sexs and so on.
B. The need for a sense of security and protection, as guaranteed keamannnya, protected from danger and disease threats, war, poverty, hunger, unfair treatment and so forth.
C. Social needs that include, among others, the need to be loved, taken into account as a person, are recognized as members of the group, a sense of loyal friendship, and cooperation.
D. The need for awards, including the need to be rewarded for achievement, ability, position or status, rank and so on.
E. The need for self-actualization, among others the need to enhance the potential possessed, maximum self-development, creativity, and self-expression.
Maslow's level or hierarchy of needs is not intended to be a framework that can be used at any time, but rather a reference frame that can be used at any time when it is necessary to forecast the level of need which can be used to encourage someone to be motivated to act.
In everyday life we can observe that human needs are different, the factors that influence the level of needs include educational background, high degree of position, past experience, life view or philosophy, ideals and expectations The future of each individual.
Based on the order of the level of need according to Maslow's theory, the life of each human can be explained as follows: In the beginning the most urgent human needs are physiological needs such as food, clothing, shelter and health. If these physiological needs are met, then urgent needs are urgent needs, urgently arises another urgent necessity of need for appreciation. And so on up to the level of self-actualization needs, want to become famous and famous people. But do not mean that human life will follow the order of the fifth level of physiological needs to the level of self-actualization needs, the process of human life is different and does not always follow an increasing straight line, sometimes jump from a certain level of need to another level of need with Beyond the level of another particular need by exceeding the different levels of needs above. Or the possibility of a backlash from a higher level of need to a lower level of need. Thus at certain moments the level of one's needs is different from the others.
Motivation is a process that can not be observed, but is interpreted through the actions of individuals who behave, so that motivation is the construction of the soul. The position of motivation is parallel to the content of the soul as the cognition, karsa (konasi), and the sense (emotion) which is the tridaya. If the creativity, intention and sense inherent in a person combined with motivation can be a power chess or four drives that can lead individuals to achieve goals and meet needs.
According to McDonald (Wasty, 2000: 191) motivation is a change of energy in a person (person) characterized by an affective impulse and reactions to achieve the goal. In the formulation of McDonald's opinion in this when examined there are three interrelated elements, namely:
1. Motivation starts from the change of energy in the person. Changes in motivation arise from certain actions
2. Motivation is characterized by the emergence of affective arousal feelings. At first a psychological tension and then an emotional atmosphere. This atmosphere gives rise to a patterned behavior This change may and may not be, we can only see it in action.
3. Motivation is characterized by reactions to achieve goals. Motivated individuals make responses toward a goal. The responses work to reduce the tension caused by the change in energy in him. Each response is a step toward achieving the goal.
In line with the opinion of McDonald's above Makmun (2001: 37) says that in essence the motivation is:
1. A force (power) or power (forces) or energy power.
2. A complex state (a complex state) and the preparatory set within the individual (organization) to move (move, motion, motive) toward a particular goal, whether consciously or unconsciously.
Psychologist Gestalt says that motivation is the product of the incompatibility of a life stage. In the life phase it includes positive or negative goals that want to be achieved or avoided. This means that motivation arises from the presence of other drives in the organism. Bigge (2002: 73) says that organism drives such as hunger, thirst and sexual need; And for emotionals such as fear, anger and "love" - produce behaviors that predictable and irresistible.
Furthermore, behavioral experts (behavioriest) argue that motivation is the impetus to do something as a result of the stimulus that preceded it. All motivations arise directly from organisms' impulses, basic emotions or from the tendency to respond to these drives and emotions. Encouragement of organisms such as hunger, thirst and sexual needs (emotional need) and emotional impulses such as fear, anger both form predictable behavior.
Based on the above opinion can be understood that the behavior that appears in a person is influenced by the stimuli-stimulus from within and from outside the human self. Such as hunger, thirst, sexual needs, fear, anger, love and others. These stimuli are the motives or impulses that influence a person to do something to meet his needs.
Meanwhile Murray (in Arikunto 2003: 67) says: that motivation is a construct (hypothetical concept) consisting of forces that affect a person's perceptions and behaviors in his attempt to change an unsatisfactory situation.
From Murray's theory above shows that external stimuli play an important role for the growth of motivation, although internal motivation is more important than external motivation, but the teacher's role in generating student motivation is still needed to change Perceptions and behavior in the learning process.
According Purwanto (2002: 72), there are two principles that can be used to review the motivation is:
(1) Motivation is seen as a process. Knowledge of this process will help us explain the behavior we observe and to explain other behaviors to a person;
(2) We determine the character of this process by looking at the clues of its behavior. Whether they are reliable, can be seen from its usefulness in estimating and explaining other behaviors. Motivation contains three main components, namely moving, directing and sustaining human behavior. Moving means generating power to the individual; Leading a person to act in certain ways. For example, strength in memory, effective responses, and the tendency to get pleasure. Motivation also directs or distributes behavior. Thus it provides a goal orientation. Individual behavior is directed toward something. To maintain and sustain behavior, the environment must reinforce the intensity and direction of individual drives and forces.
Other components in the motivation, namely components in (inner component), and outer component (outer component). The inner component is a change in a person, a state of dissatisfaction, and psychological tension. The external component is what a person wants, the goal that becomes the direction of his behavior. So the inner component is the needs to be satisfied, while the external component is the goal to be achieved.
The stimulus response theory (S-R) or the theory of excitatory reactions in psychology explains that one's behavior is caused by events that come from within or outside of itself, while the direction of the behavior is determined by the corresponding mechanism of the S-R
Student motivation naturally must occur because of its desire to participate in the learning process. But it is also based on the underlying reasons or ideals to participate in the academic process. Because, while students may be motivated equally to perform an act, their motivational sources may be different.
McDonald says that psychologists have studied how one learns with relatively stable motivational tendencies. One of the basic concepts to explain the tendency is the need. Needs are general tendencies that are motivated in special ways.
Meanwhile Gestalt theories tend to avoid the use of behavioristic concepts, such as drive, influence, and reinforcement on the one hand and mentalistic concepts such as vitalism, and awareness of The other side. For them there are some concepts related to motivation, namely goals (goals), expectations (expectancy), intention (intention) and goals / goals (purpose). In the frame of reference Gestalt behavior is the function of a total situation. People interact in the field (territory) of psychological impulses. Psychological fields include goals and ideals, the interpretation of relevant physical objects and events, memory and anticipation. Thus the motivation can not be described only by a movement of the heart (an impulse) to the act that is driven by the stimulus. More than that it arises from a dynamic psychological situation characterized by a person's desire to do something.
Based on the above explanation can be understood that in fact motivation is something that can not be separated from the human self, because in essence life is the need and hope. Human motivation can be sourced from the human self itself (intrinsic) or also from outside (extrinsic). In general, intrinsic motivation is stronger and better than extrinsic motivation. Therefore intrinsic motivation should be generated and activated within each individual.
Lepper (1988) says that intrinsic motivation encourages students to move because of the pleasures, hopes, and the emergence of perfect feelings, whereas extrinsic motivation encourages students to work on rewards and avoid punishment.
Based on the opinion Lepper above can be understood learning motivation that arises internally and also externally. Someone does an activity because the activity is meaningful, the happiness, the hope, the feeling of achievement, or anything else that becomes the motivator (someone) to do an activity. Extrinsic motivation is a motivation that encourages a person to move from outside like punishment, reward and beyond the activity itself that is the level, bonds or blessing of the teacher.
Understanding how different school experiences can influence learning motivation is important to differentiate between the quality of perceived learning situations; Interesting, happy, personal or relevant versus learning situations that are felt to be boring, saturating, meaningless, or irrelevant from an individual perspective. In the first case, the motivation of learning is naturally motivated by learning tasks that are felt to be fun or personally meaningful. In the second case, learning motivation should be stimulated from the outside to cope with the lack of intrinsic motivation caused by students' learning perceptions that learning tasks are tedious or personally meaningless.
In many externally determined learning situations, options are limited to controlling and managing internal thoughts and feelings. The choice of behavior is few. According to McCombs. (2002: 1) Another important difference is whether motivation is a natural response to the learner's curiosity or the learner must exert all his energies to regulate feelings arising from negative thinking about external conditions (such as teachers, curricula, and practices Learning)
In addition to intrinsic and extrinsic motivation above there is another motivation that is positive motivation and negative motivation. Positive motivation raises the spirit and strength in each individual. It happens because every human being is happy with good things and happy about praise. While negative motivations will have an unfavorable impact for the long term but will have an impact on good morale for the short term. This happens because the negative motivation is the warning and warning against the mistakes made and to be a concern for doing the upcoming activities.
In practice both types of motivation are often used in a group of activities. What must be considered is when positive or negative motivation can stimulate effectively the excitement of activity within the individual. Positive motivation for the long term while negative motivation for the short term.
McCombs (2002: 2) says: "Another key to motivation is to learn how to learn and to learn about learning and learning. Have a voice-in their own learning process. "(One way to motivate students to learn is by helping them to see ways that can alter negative thinking and make learning fun by linking it to personal interests, working together to achieve goals and be able to Make choices, have opinions in their learning process).
Encouragement that exist in a person's often intangible needs (needs), willingness (willingness), stimulus (drive) and conscience. Encouragement is realized or not realized by someone leads to a goal. The impulse will basically affect a person's behavior and be the reason why someone is doing an action or activity. The impulse of power within a person that moves the person's behavior to and in achieving the goal. Thus encouragement will lead to activities that aim and will affect the behavior of someone who has that impulse.
McClelland (in Arikunto 2003: 67) has conducted research on motivation known as the "N 'Ach" measurement study, a popular term in the field of education, which stands for "need for achievement", a form of need By someone for an achievement (achievement). Usually a person who has a desire to gain something within him will have a strong urge to achieve his will. That strong drive is called motivation.
Viewed in terms of motive every movement of human behavior that always contains three aspects, the position gradual and sequential (sequential), namely:
(1) Motivating states (the emergence of strength and the occurrence of preparedness as a result of terasanya network or secretion, hormonal needs within the organism or aroused by a particular stimulation).
(2) Motivated behavior (moving the organism toward a particular destination in accordance with the nature to be fulfilled and satisfied).
(3) Satisfied conditions (by successfully achieving a goal that can meet the needs that are felt, then the balance within the organism recover).
Gibson and his friends (in Gito and Mulyana 2001: 178) describe the process of early pattern motivation derived from the unfulfilled / unfulfilled needs of individuals which then leads people to find ways to meet their various needs. The search for that path will be manifested to behaviors directed at unmet / unfulfilled individual goals).
Needs are the permanent tendencies in a person that stimulate and create behavior to achieve the goal. The need arises because of changes (internal change) in the organism or caused by stimulants events in the environment of the organism. Once the changes occurred, then the energy arising underlying behavior toward the goal. So, the emergence of these needs that generate motivation in one's behavior.
Needs can encourage, strengthen, and lead the behavior of a person either to perform activities in meeting these needs or to achieve a goal. Depth of need according to Maslow according Sudjana (2000: 167). Start from the needs of the lowest and toward the highest needs. Requirement at a lower level becomes a requirement to meet every higher need. Maslow presents five needs: physiological needs, security needs, social needs, need for recognition and appreciation, and self-actualization / self-actualization needs.
When explained from the five needs are as follows:
1) Physiological needs are primary needs concerning the biological functions of individual organisms as humans, such as clothing, board, food, health and so on.
2) The need for security and protection is an individual's need to feel secure from all dangers and things that will damage it.
3) Social needs are needs that include the desire to be taken into account and recognized in groups, such as the need to be loved, cooperation and others.
4) The need to be recognized and valued is a necessity because of the achievement, ability, status or individual status of the group.
5) The need for self-actualization is the need to enhance the potential of the individual to develop themselves maximally, creativity and self-expression.
Based on some of the above description can be synthesized that the student's learning motivation is the overall driving force or driving force that affects the perception and behavior of students in learning and raises the desire to perform activities or activities in learning as a student who performed systematically, continuously and progressively achieve goals -learning objectives.
The Role of Teachers in Improving Student Motivation
In an effort to improve students' learning motivation, teachers have an important role in the success of student learning, some of the roles include:
1. Know each student personally taught. By getting to know each student personally, the teacher will be able to treat each student appropriately. Thus the effort to improve student learning motivation is done exactly as well even though the teacher is dealing with the group of students in the classroom. If the teacher knows his students personally he / she will be able to also make each student in the group differ according to the circumstances and abilities and difficulties and strengths of each student.
2. Being able to show a pleasant interaction, this fun interaction will create a safe atmosphere in the classroom. The students are free from fear of doing deeds that are not pleasing to the teacher. This pleasant interaction can create a healthy atmosphere in the classroom, a pleasant and healthy atmosphere that creates a supportive atmosphere for learning. Thus the motivation to learn students to be better.
3. Mastering various methods and techniques of teaching and using appropriately. Mastery of various methods and techniques of teaching and its proper application make teachers mampou change the way of teaching in accordance with the classroom atmosphere. In the students, the primary test in primary school often arises Susana quickly bored with unchanging circumstances. The teacher should listen to the changing classroom atmosphere as a result of the students' boredom for the unchanging atmosphere. Teachers can restore the students' learning passion, among others, by changing the methods and techniques of teaching at the time Susana bored it began to emerge.
4. Maintain a classroom atmosphere so that students avoid conflict and frustration. The atmosphere of conflict and frustration in the classroom led to decreased student's passion. Their attention is no longer to the learning activities, but to the effort to eliminate the conflict and fustasi it. Their energy is depleted to solve conflicts and frustrations, so they can not learn well. If the teacher can maintain the classroom atmosphere and eliminate the conflict and frustration, then the full student concentration will be returned to the learning activities. Full concentration on learning can improve children's learning motivation and in turn will improve learning outcomes.
5. Treating students according to circumstances and abilities. As a continuation of the students' personal understanding, teachers can treat each student appropriately according to the things he / she knows from each student.
With the application of the role as above, then the teacher will be able to put themselves in the student environment appropriately. In turn the teacher will be able to use the technique, the motivation appropriately, both in a group setting and in an individual atmosphere.
As for other efforts to improve motivation to learn according to Robert (1990: 153), namely:
A. Optimizing the application of learning principles
The presence of students in the classroom is the beginning of the motivation to learn. To improve students' learning motivation is the guidance of learning acts for teachers. In the learning effort, teachers have to deal with students and master the ins and outs of materials that are taught to students. The learning effort is related to some of the principles of learning. Some of the principles of learning include the following:
1) Learning becomes meaningful if the student understands the purpose of learning, therefore the teacher should explain the learning objectives hierarchically.
2) Learning becomes meaningful when the student is faced with the problem solver that challenges him, therefore the laying of a challenging sequence of problems must be well conceived by the teacher.
3) Learning becomes meaningful when the teacher is able to concentrate all the mental abilities of the students in a particular program of activity therefore the teacher should make learning in teaching unit or project.
4) The need for student learning materials is increasing, therefore teachers need to arrange materials from the simplest to the most challenging.
5) Learning to be challenging when students understand the principles of valuation and the value of learning for life in the future, therefore teachers need to provide the criteria of success or failure to learn.
B. Optimizing the dynamic elements of learning and learning
Elements that exist in the environment and within students there are encouraging and there is a hamper learning activities. Therefore, teachers who better understand the limitations of time for students can seek to optimize these dynamic elements by:
1) Providing opportunities for students to reveal the learning barrier they experienced.
2) Maintain interest, willingness, and enthusiasm of learning so as to realize the learning act.
3) Asking for the opportunity of the parent or guardian, in order to give the opportunity to the students to self-actualize in learning.
4) Harness the elements of the environment that encourage learning.
5) Using time in an orderly, reinforcing and happy atmosphere centered on learning behavior.
6) Teachers stimulate students with reinforcement gives confidence.
C. Optimizing the utilization of students' experience and abilities
Teachers are required to use their learning experiences and students' skills in managing student learning. Efforts to optimize the use of student experience can be done as follows:
1) Students are assigned to read the previous study materials and ask the teacher what they do not understand.
2) The teacher learns things that are hard for students.
3) The teacher solves difficult things.
4) The teacher teaches how to solve such difficulties and educates the truth overcoming difficulties.
5) Teacher invites students to experience and overcome difficulties.
6) The teacher gives students the opportunity to become peer tutors.
7) The teacher gives reinforcement to the students who successfully overcome their own learning difficulties.
8) The teacher appreciates the experience and ability of the students to learn independently.
D. Development of aspirations and learning aspirations
Development of learning ideals is done since the students enter primary school. Development of these ideals is taken by making learning activities something. A gift amplifier is awarded to each successful student. Conversely encouragement courage to have the ideals given to students who come from all walks of life.
Source of Reading:
A. Tabrani R (1994) Pendekatan dalam Proses Belajar Mengajar, Bandung: Remaja Rosda Karya
Abin Syamsudin Makmun (2001), Psikologi Kependidikan, Jakarta: Remaja Rosda Karya
Depdikbud (1996), Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia, Jakarta: Balai Pustaka
Nana Sudjana dan Daeng Arifin. (1988). Cara Belajar Siswa Aktif dalam Proses Belajar Mengajar. Bandung: Sinar Baru
Oemar Hamalik. (2002). Psikologi Belajar dan Mengajar, Bandung: Sinar Baru Algensindo
Sondang P. Siagian. (2004). Teori Motivasi dan Aplikasinya. Jakarta: PT. Rineka Cipta,
WS. Winkel. (1983) Psikologi Pendidikan dan Evaluasi Belajar. Jakarta: Gramedia, 1983
W.S. Winkel. (1996). Psikologi Pengajaran, Jakarta: Grasindo.