LITERATURE IN THE STUDY OF PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE (EPITEMOLOGY ONTOLOGIC AND AXIOLOGY)

Posted by PENDIDIKAN KEWARGANEGARAAN on Jumat, 28 April 2017

LITERATURE IN THE STUDY OF PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE
A. Literature Review Ontologically
The main branch of metaphysics is ontology, the study of the categorization of things in nature and the relationships between one another. Metaphysicians also seek to clarify human thoughts about the world, including existence, materiality, nature, space, time, causality, and possibilities.


Branch Ontology, which is located within the region. The word Ontology comes from Greece, which is to say that there is and logos which means science. Thus, ontology can be interpreted as the science of existence. Questions concerning this area include: what is the object of science? What is the essence of the object? How is the relationship between the object with the capture power of human beings that produce knowledge and knowledge?

Ontology is one of the most ancient philosophical studies and comes from Greece. The study discusses the existence of something concrete. Greek figures who have an ontological view are like Thales, Plato, and Aristotle. In his time, most people have not distinguished between apparitions and reality. And the ontology approach in philosophy culminates in some understandings, namely: (1) The idea of ​​a divided monism into idealism or spiritualism; (2) The idea of ​​dualism, and (3) pluralism with its various nuances, is ontological understanding.

The science ontology confines itself to the scientific study space that human beings can think rationally and which can be observed through the five senses of man. The area of ​​science ontology is limited to the scope of human scientific knowledge. While the study of the object of study that is within the boundaries of prapengalaman (like human creation) and pascapengalaman (like heaven and hell) become ontology from other knowledge outside you. Some streams in the field of ontology, namely realism, naturalism, empiricism.

Ontologically, the writings of either poetry, prose, short story, essay, novel and others depart from the point of departure personal experience of the author. Writing has a form as a text filled with various complexities of a personal interpretation of the author. The writing that ultimately has a form as a literature is one of the art form of a writer intending to convey a set of messages to his readers by departing from the ontological departing point. All literature in the form of text can basically be studied at the level of sign, structure, style, until the meaning. Symptoms of the use of signs and / or symbols in literature are examined through semiotics. Symptoms of structures in literature are assessed through flow analysis or structural analysis. Symptoms of the style of language in literature are examined through Stilistic, while the phenomena of meaning in literature are examined through Hermeneutics and text analysis. The study can serve as a foundation that proves the scientific facts of a literature or literature as it can be studied scientifically.

Ontology, literature according to S. Brahmana in (http://brahmanamedan.wordpress.com/2009/11/22/48/), has five foundations that can be studied in various perspectives. Are as follows:
1. Literature as a language
2. Literature as art
3. Literature as communication
4. Literature as a symbol
5. Literature as entertainment
Literature or writing is a science that can be accounted for.

B. Literature Registration Epistemology
Epistemology is a branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, nature, methods and limits of human knowledge (a branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, nature, methods and limits of human knowledge). Epistemology is also called the theory of knowledge. Derived from the Greek word episteme, meaning "knowledge", "true knowledge", "intellectual knowledge", and logos = theory. Epistemology can be defined as a branch of philosophy that studies the origin or source, structure, method and validity of knowledge.

Epistemology, which is within the realm of knowledge. The word Epistemology comes from Greece, the episteme which means way and logos which means science. Thus, epistemology can be interpreted as the science of how a scientist will build his knowledge. Questions concerning this area include: what is the process that allows knowledge to be gained knowledge? What is the procedure? For this, we will lead to the branch of methodology philosophy.

The problems in epistemology are: 1) What is knowledge ?; 2) How can man know something ?; 3) Where does that knowledge come from? 4) How is the validity of the knowledge can be dinitai? 5) What is the difference between a priori knowledge (pre-experience knowledge) and a posteriori knowledge (experience knowledge) ?; 6) What is the difference between: belief, knowledge, opinion, fact, reality, error, shadow, idea, truth, probability, certainty?

Steps in the epistemology of science include deductive thinking and parent-tif. Deductive thinking provides a rational nature of scientific knowledge and is consistent with previously pre-identified knowledge. The systematic and cumulative knowledge of science is prepared step by step by constructing arguments about something new based on existing knowledge. Consistently and coherently, science tries to give a rational explanation to the objects that are in the focus of study.

Literature or writing is a cultural product that plays an important role in the civilization of mankind, so literature in this context becomes directly involved in culture-even forming the culture itself. The essence of a writing or the essence of a literature and culture is the essence of fiction and fact. Literature is built on the basis of imagination that comes directly from the actual state of both the implicit and the explicit, so as to elaborate the realities of space and time as a writing is born.

Based on the above meanings, a writing or literature as an epistemological fact is based on the personal meaning of the author in scientific. A writing or literature obtains its scientific awareness from the sense of writing to something consciously. And it implies that a literature and literature are built on or through a subtle epistymological basis.

The epistemology of a literature is highly dependent on the ontology we understand. If we regard literature as a language, then the epistemology is the sciences of linguistic. When we consider literature as art, the epistemology is the arts. If we consider literature as communication, then its epistemology is the science of communication. If we regard literature as a symbol, then its epistemology is the sciences of symbols. When we consider literature as entertainment, the epistemology is the popular culture sciences.

In terms of epistemolgi gave birth to many methods of literary review. For example, structuralism, semiotics, hermeneutics, sociology, sociology, sociology, sociology, sociology, sociology, sociology, Doactic, semantic, traditional, intentional, existential, general, particularic, comparative, doctrinal, sequential, thematic, evaluative, judicial, inductive, impressionistic, sociocultural, mythical, relativistic, textual, linguistic, elusidatory, political / ideological, Brahmin, "Literature As A Discipline of Science").

C. Literature Is Seen Axiology
Axiology is derived from the Greek word axios which means value and logos which means theory. Thus axiology is "the theory of values" (Proverbs Bakhtiar, 2004: 162). Axiology is defined as a theory of values ​​relating to the usefulness of acquired knowledge (Jujun S. Suriasumantri, 2000: 105). According to Bramel in Proverbs Bakhtiar (2004: 163) axiology is divided into three parts: First, moral conduct, the moral act that gives birth to ethics; Keduei, - esthetic expression, the expression of beauty, Third, the socio-political life, the social-political life, which will give birth to socio-political philosophy.

Axiology, which is within the value area. The word axiology comes from Greece, namely axion which means value and logos which means science. Thus, axiology can be interpreted as a science of the ethical values ​​of a scientist. Questions concerning this area include: what knowledge is it used for? What is the connection between how to use it with moral rules? How is the determination of the object under study based on moral choices? What is the relation between the scientific method used with moral and professional norms? That way, we will lead to the branch of Ethics philosophy.

In the Encyclopedia of Philosophy it is explained that axiology is equated with value and valuation. There are three forms of value and valuation, namely: 1) Values, as an abstract noun; 2) Values ​​as concrete nouns; 3) Values ​​are also used as verbs in the expression of judgment.

Axiom is understood as a value theory in its development to give birth to a polemic about the freedom of knowledge to value or what can be called as value neutrality. Instead, there is a kind of knowledge based on the value attachment or better known as the value bound. Now which is superior between the neutrality of knowledge and knowledge based on the attachment of value.

The neutrality of science rests only on the basis of the epistemology of the king: If black says black, if it turns white say white; Without taking sides with anyone other than to the real truth. While ontologically and axiologically, the scientist must be able to judge between good and bad, which essentially requires him to determine attitudes (Jujun S. Suriasumantri, 2000: 36).

Seen from the point of axiology, literature must have the following ethical values:
1) Literature should reflect and foster a sense of beauty.
2) Literature should guide the nation's conquest and integrity.
3) Literature should lead to the spiritual development of the nation.
4) Literature should provide information for problems in society.
5) Literature must create new ideas and ideas.
6) Literature must be able to provide entertainment for the people (the audience). Then the axiology of literature is the six elements above.
Whether these six elements are in a literature or not is another matter.
Axiologically an article or literature has ethical values ​​for its own authors as its creator who is consciously placing ethical values ​​in the aesthetic values ​​embodied in a literature or writing. It axiologically has endorsed a writing or literature as one of the works that can be accounted for in a scientific way.

Systematic is one of the characteristics of science. In general, science must be accountable for its validity objectively. Broadly speaking, according to Science Jujun S. Suriasumantri, knowledge is the result of constant observation, because it does not provide a place for critical assessment and testing by others, thus not systematic and not objective and not universal. While Science is a conceptual framework or a theory of interrelated money that provides a place of assessment and testing critically with scientific methods by other experts in the same field, thus being systematic, objective, and universal.

A writing or literature can be proved as a science because it can be proven through ontological, epistimological, and axiological facts. Because according to S. Brahmana (http://brahmanamedan.wordpress.com/2009/11/22/48/), literature is as a discipline, standing and parallel to other disciplines. While the independence of literature as a science-literature, depending on the dynamics contained in the literature, because (the work) literature can be seen, approached, discussed from various angles and interests.

D. Conclude
1). Theology is the essence, essence or essence. Ontology discusses the essence, essence or essence of so-called knowledge or in other words ontology examines the 'true reality' of knowledge. So the question is in the ontology is the essence or essence or essence of pengethuan it. For example whether the essence, the essence of literature, what is the essence, the essence of communication and so forth

2) Ontologically, all literature in the form of text can basically be studied at the level of sign, structure, style, until the meaning. Symptoms of the use of signs and / or symbols in literature are examined through semiotics. Symptoms of structures in literature are assessed through flow analysis or structural analysis. Symptoms of the style of language in literature are examined through Stilistic, while the phenomena of meaning in literature are examined through Hermeneutics and text analysis. The study can be used as a foundation that proves the scientific facts of a writing or literature because it can be studied scientifically

3) Epistemology is the systematic knowledge of knowledge (A. M.W Pranarka, 1987: 3). Epistemology examines the validity (validity) and limits of science. Science is knowledge gained through a certain process called scientific method. This scientific method is the first two methods of deduction and both methods of deduction.

4) Literature can be viewed as an epistemological fact based on the personal meaning of the author in scientific. If we regard literature as a language, then the epistemology is the sciences of linguistic. When we consider literature as art, the epistemology is the arts. If we consider literature as communication, then its epistemology is the science of communication. If we regard literature as a symbol, then its epistemology is the sciences of symbols. When we consider literature as entertainment, the epistemology is the popular culture sciences.

5) Axiology or deontology is a philosophical review of normative matters. For example the usefulness of science. What benefits or utility can be directly perceived, whether not, the extent of the impact or influence on humans and so forth.

6) Axiologically a literature or literature has ethical values ​​for its own authors as its creator who is consciously placing ethical values ​​in the aesthetic values ​​embodied in a literature or writing. It axiologically has endorsed a writing or literature as one of the works that can be accounted for in a scientific way.

7) A writing or literature can be proved as a science because it can be proven through ontological, epistimological, and axiological facts. Because according to S. Brahmana (http://brahmanamedan.wordpress.com/2009/11/22/48/), literature is as a discipline, standing and parallel to other disciplines. While the independence of literature as a science-literature, depending on the dynamics contained in the literature, because (the work) literature can be seen, approached, discussed from various angles and interests.

REFERENCE

Bakhtiar, Proverbs. 2004. Philosophy of Science (revised edition). Jakarta: PT Raja Grafindo Persada

Cangara, Hafied. 2008. Introduction to Communication Studies. Revised Edition. Jakarta. Raja Grafindo Persada.

Effendy, Onong Uchyana. 1994. Science Communication, Theory and Practice. Bandung. Youth Rosdakarya.

Effendy., Onong Uchjana, 2000, Science, Theory and Philosophy of Communication, Publisher PT. Citra Aditya Bakti, Bandung.

Mulyana, Deddy. 2001. Communication Science: An Introduction. Bandung. Youth Rosdakarya ..

Suhartono, Suparlan. 2005. Philosophy of Science. Yogyakarta: Ar Ruzz.

Suriasumantri, Jujun S, 1985, Philosophy of Science A Popular Introduction, Publisher of Sinar Harapan, Jakarta

Http://brahmanamedan.wordpress.com/2009/11/22/48/, downloaded on November 10, 2013, at 9:00 p.m.


Http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sastra downloaded on November 10, 2013, at 21:30



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