Posted by PENDIDIKAN KEWARGANEGARAAN on Minggu, 21 Mei 2017

The process of learning is now expected to apply the characteristics of learning 21st century. This is to address the demands of an increasingly competitive era. The 21st century learning reflects four things.
1. Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
2. Creativity and Innovation
3. Communication
4. Collaboration

1. Communication
In this character, learners are required to understand, manage, and create effective communication in various forms and contents in oral, written, and multimedia. Learners are given the opportunity to use their ability to express their ideas, either during discussions with friends and when solving problems from educators.

The 21st century is a digital century. Communication is done across state borders using increasingly sophisticated technological devices. The internet is very helpful to humans in communicating. Currently so much social media is used as a means to communicate. Through its smartphone, in a matter of seconds, humans can easily connect to the rest of the world.

In Big Indonesian Dictionary, the meaning of communication is the sending and receiving of messages or news from two or more people so that the intended message can be understood. While Wikipedia states that communication is "a process whereby a person or multiple people, groups, organizations, and society creates, and uses information to connect with the environment and others".

Communication can not be separated from the interaction between the two parties. Communication requires art, should know with whom to communicate, when it is appropriate to communicate, and how to communicate well. Communication can be done either orally, in writing, or through symbols understood by the parties communicating. Communication is done in diverse environments, starting at home, school, and community. Communication can be a means of getting closer to human relationships, but it can be a source of problems when miscommunication or communication is not working well. Mastery of language becomes very important in communicating. Communication that goes well can not be separated from the mastery of good language between communicator and communicant.

Learning activities is a very strategic means to train and improve students' communication skills, both communication between students with teachers, and communication between students. When students respond to teacher explanations, ask questions, answer questions, or express opinions, it is a communication.

2. Collaboration
In this character, learners demonstrate their abilities in teamwork and leadership, adapt in various roles and responsibilities, work productively with others, place empathy in place, respect for different perspectives. Learners also exercise personal responsibility and personal flexibility, at work, and community relations, setting and achieving high standards and goals for yourself and others, tolerating ambiguity.

Learning in groups, cooperatively train students to collaborate and cooperate. It is also to instill social skills and control ego and emotion. Thus, through collaboration will create togetherness, ownership, responsibility, and caring among the members.

Success is not only interpreted as an individual success, but also a success together, because basically human besides as an individual, also a social creature. Today many people are intellectually intelligent, but less able to work in teams, less able to control emotions, and have a high ego. This will certainly hinder the path to success, because according to the results of research Harvard University, one's success is determined by 20% hard skill and 80% soft skiil. Collaboration is a description of someone who has soft skills that mature.

3. Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
In this character, learners strive to provide logical reasoning in understanding and making complex choices, understanding the interconnections between systems. Learners also use the ability they have to try to solve the problems they face independently, learners also have the ability to compose and disclose, analyze, and solve problems.

Learning activities are designed to make this happen through the application of a scientific approach (5M), problem-based learning, problem solving, and project-based learning.

Teachers should not be uncomfortable or disturbed when there are students who are critical, ask questions, and often give opinions. It is as a form of curiosity high. What teachers need to do is give free and responsible opportunities to each student to ask questions and express opinions. The teacher invites students to conclude and make reflection together. Questions at the HOTS level and open answers also serve as a form of accommodating students' critical thinking skills.

4. Creativity and Innovation
In this character, learners have the ability to develop, implement, and convey new ideas to others, be open and responsive to new and different perspectives.

Teachers need to open space to students to develop their creativity. Develop a culture of appreciation to the slightest role or achievement of students. It aims to motivate students to keep improving their achievement. Of course we remember with Mr. Tino Sidin, who filled the show drawing or painting on TVRI so many years ago. He always said "good" to whatever conditions the work of his students. It needs to be copied by the teachers of today to make students feel valued.

The role of the teacher only as a facilitator and guide each student in learning, because basically every student is unique. This is consistent with that conveyed by Howard Gardner that humans have multiple intelligences. There are eight types of multiple intelligences, namely; (1) the intelligence of language, (3) musical intelligence, (4) kinesthetic intelligence, (5) visual-spatial intelligence, (6) intrapersonal intelligence, (7) interpersonal intelligence, and (8) Naturalist intelligence.

Then how is the role of school? The role of schools in applying 21st century learning includes: a) Improving school policies and plans to develop new skills; B) Develop new curriculum guidance; C) Implement new and relevant teaching strategies, and d) Establish school partnerships at regional, national and international levels

How are the characteristics of the 21st century teacher? According to Ragwan Alaydrus, S. There are at least 7 Characteristics of the 21st Century Teachers

1. Life-long learner. Lifelong learners. Teachers need to upgrade their knowledge by reading and discussing with other teachers or asking experts. There is never a word satisfied with the existing knowledge, because times are constantly changing and teachers are up to date in order to be able to assist students according to their needs.

2. Creative and innovative. Creative students are born from creative and innovative teachers. Teachers are expected to be able to utilize variations of learning resources to organize activities in the classroom.

3. Optimizing technology. One feature of the 21st century learning model is blended learning, a combination of traditional face-to-face methods and the use of digital and online media. In 21st century learning, technology is not something that is additional, even mandatory.

4. Reflective. Reflective teachers are teachers who are able to use assessment of learning outcomes to improve their teaching quality. Reflective teachers know when their teaching strategies are less than optimal to help students achieve learning success. There are many teachers who have never been sensitive even after teaching for years that their approach does not match the learning style of the students. The reflective teacher is able to correct his approach to fit the needs of the students, rather than continue to blame students' ability to absorb learning

5. Collaborative. This is one of the uniqueness of 21st century learning. Teachers can collaborate with students in learning. There is always mutual respect and warmth so that learning will be more fun. In addition, teachers also build collaborations with parents through active communication in monitoring child development.

6. Applying student centered. This is one of the keys in today's classroom learning. In this case, students have an active role in learning so that teachers only act as facilitators. Therefore, in the 21st century class the lecture method is no longer popular to apply because it relies more on one-way communication between teacher and student.

Apply a differentiation approach. In applying this approach, the teacher will design the class based on the student's learning style. Grouping of students in the classroom also based on their interests and abilities. In assessing teachers apply formative assessment by assessing students on a regular basis based on performance (not just a written test). Not only that, teachers and students try to organize the class to become a safe and supportive environment for learning.

Then how is the competence of students in the 21st century? There are at least four that must be owned by the 21st century generation, namely: ways of thingking, ways of working, tools for working and skills for living in the word. How an educator should design learning that will deliver students to meet the needs of the 21st century. Here is the ability of the 21st century should be possessed learners, namely:

1. Way of thinking, the way of thinking is some ability to think that must be mastered learners to face the 21st century world. The ability to think is among others: creative, critical thinking, problem solving, decision making and learners.

2. Ways of working. Ability of how they should work. With a global world and a digital world. Some of the abilities that must be mastered by learners is communication and collaboration. The 21st century generation must be able to communicate well, using various methods and communication strategies. It should also be able to collaborate and work with individuals and communities and networks. This communication and cooperation network utilizes ICT-based ways, methods and strategies. How one should be able to work together with different abilities.

3. Tools for working. One must have and master the tools to work. Mastery of Information and communications technology (ICT) and information literacy is a must. Without ICT and other resource-based sources of information, it is difficult for a person to develop his work.

4. Skills for living in the world. Ability to live life in the 21st century, namely: Citizenship, life and career, and personal and social responsibility. How learners should live as citizens, life and careers, and personal and social responsibilities.

Through 21st century learning, there are two core skills to be developed by teachers: a) Ability to use mathematical knowledge, English, Science, Citizenship and others to respond to real-world challenges; And b) Critical thinking and problem solving, communication and cooperation, creativity, independence, and others.

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