Posted by PENDIDIKAN KEWARGANEGARAAN on Minggu, 22 Mei 2016

Clinical Supervision
Definition of Clinical Supervision
Clinical supervision was first introduced and developed by Morris L. Cogan, Robert Goldhammer, and Richarct Weller at Harvard University in the late fifty and early decades (Krajewski) 1982). There are two assumptions that underlie the practice of clinical supervision. First, teaching is a very complex activity that requires careful observation and analysis through these observations and analyzes, the teaching supervisor will easily develop the teacher's ability to manage the learning process. Second, the teachers whose professionals want to be developed prefer the collegial way rather than the outoritarian way (Sergiovanni, 1987).

Initially, the clinical supervision was designed as one of the models or approaches in supervising the teaching of prospective teachers who are practicing teaching. In this supervision the emphasis is on the clinic, which is realized is a form of face-to-face relationship between supervisors and prospective teachers who are practicing, Cogan (1973) defines clinical supervision as follows: The rational and practice designed to improve the teacher’supervisi classroom performance. It takes its principal data from the events of the classroom. The analysis of these data and the relationships between teacher and supervisor from the basis of the program, procedures, and strategies designed to improve the student’supervisi learning by improving the teacher’supervisi classroom behavior (Cogan 1973, halaman 54).

In accordance with this Cogan opinion, clinical supervision is basically the guidance of teacher performance in managing the teaching and learning process. Its implementation is practically rationally designed. Both the design and the implementation are done on the basis of data analysis of the activities in the classroom. Data and relationships between teachers and supervisors are the basis of program procedures, and strategies for teaching behavioral development of teachers in developing students' learning. Cogan itself emphasizes the aspects of clinical supervision on five issues, namely (1) the process of clinical supervision, (2) the interaction between prospective teachers and students, (3) the performance of prospective teachers in teaching, (4) the relationship of prospective teachers with supervisors, and (5) Analysis of data based on actual events in the class.

The purpose of clinical supervision is to help modify teaching patterns that are not or less effective. According to Sergiovanni (1987) there are two targets of clinical supervision, which the authors have reflected on multi-purpose clinical supervision, which the authors have reflected on the multi-purpose of teaching supervision, in particular teacher professional development and work motivation. On the one hand, clinical supervision is done to build teachers' motivation and work commitment. On the other hand, clinical supervision is done to provide staff development for teachers. Meanwhile, according to two other theoreticians, Acheson and Gall (1987) the purpose of clinical supervision is to improve the teaching of the class. This purpose is broken down into more specific objectives, as follows.
1) Provide objective feedback to teachers, on the teaching they are carrying out.
2) Diagnose and help solve teaching problems.
3) Help teachers develop their skills using teaching strategies.
4) Evaluating teachers for promotional purposes and other decisions.
5) Help teachers develop a positive attitude toward sustainable professional development.

Thus a glimpse of the concept of clinical spuervisi when concluded, then the characteristics of clinical supervision as follows; Clinical supervision takes place in the form of face-to-face relationships between supervisors and teachers, the purpose of clinical supervision is for teacher professional development. The clinical supervision activities are emphasized on the aspects of the teacher's attention as well as the observation of teaching activities in the classroom, the observation should be done carefully and in detail, the analysis of the observation result should be conducted jointly between the supervisor and the teacher and the relationship between the supervisor and the teacher should be collegial rather than authoritarian.

Clinical Supervision Steps
Explanation of the concept of clinical supervision and some of the results of research on its effectiveness lead us to believe how important clinical supervision as one approach in developing teacher teaching. It is imperative that every teaching supervisor seeks to apply them to the teachers who are the areas of responsibility. The question now is, what is the procedure.

According to Cogan (1973) there are eight activities in the clinical supervision that he named with the clinical supervision cycle. Here the term cycle contains the first two terms., The clinical supervision procedure consists of a number of stages which are a continuous process. Second, the result of the final stage meeting becomes input for the first stage in the next cycle. The eight phases proposed by Cogan are as follows: (1) the stage of establishing and strengthening the teacher-supervisor relationship, (2) the joint planning stage of the teacher, (3) the planning stage of the observation strategy, (4) the observation stage of the teaching, (5) Learning, (6) meeting strategic planning stage, (7) meeting stage, and (8) stage of exploration of next meeting plan.

According to Mosher and Purpel (1972) there are three activities in the clinical supervision process, namely (1) planning stage, (2) observation stage, and (3) evaluation and analysis stage. According to Oliva (1984) there are three essential activities in the process of clinical supervision, namely (1) contact and communication with the teacher to plan class observation (2) class observation, and (3) follow-up class observation. Meanwhile, according to Goldhammer, Anderson, and Krajewski (1981) there are five activities in the process of clinical supervision, which he calls the sequence of supervision, namely (1) meeting before observation (2) observation, (3) analysis and strategy, (4) , And (5) analysis after the supervision meeting.

Thus, although different descriptions of the above teriotics about the steps of the clinical supervision process, these measures can actually be restored to the three essential cyclic phases, (1) the initial meeting stage, (2) the observation stage of teaching, and ( 3) reverse meeting stage. In this simple textbook the author is more likely to divide the cycle of clinical supervision menajdi three stages as well as mentioned above. Such descriptions are also expressed by Acheson and Gall (1987), Alexander Mackie College of advanced Education (1981) and Mantja (1984).

1. Initial Meeting Stage
The first stage in the process of clinical supervision is the stage of the initial meeting (preconference). This preliminary meeting was conducted before conducting classroom observations so that many theorists of clinical supervision mention the term pre-observation stage. According to Sergiovanni (1987) no stage is more important than this initial meeting stage.

The main purpose of this initial meeting was to develop, together with supervisors and teachers, the framework of classroom observation to be undertaken. The end result of this initial meeting is a work contract between the supervisor and the teacher. This goal can be achieved if in this initial meeting created cooperation, human relations and good communication between supervisors with teachers. Furthermore, the quality of good relationships between supervisors and teachers has a significant influence on the success of the next stage in the process of clinical supervision. Therefore, many theorists suggest that this initial meeting, carried out in a relaxed and open manner. It is imperative that teachers' trust in supervisors be created as these beliefs will affect the effectiveness of this initial meeting. This belief is related to the teacher's belief that the supervisor is paying attention to the teacher's interest or concern.

This preliminary meeting does not take long. In this initial meeting the supervisor may spend 20 to 30 minutes, unless the teacher has special problems that require lengthy discussions. This meeting should be held in a neutral room, such as a cafeteria, or it may be in the classroom. Meetings in the principal's or supervisor's room are likely to make the teacher less free. Technically, there are eight activities to be undertaken in this initial meeting, namely (1) creating an intimate and open atmosphere, (2) identifying aspects that teachers will develop in teaching. (3) to help teachers improve their own objectives (6) set class observation time, (7) select class observation instruments, and ( 8) clarify the context of teaching by looking at the data to be recorded.

Goldhammer, Anderson, and Krajewski (1981) describe an agenda to be produced at the end of the initial meeting. The agenda is:
A. Establish a contract or agreement between supervisor and teacher about what will be observed.
1) General and special instructional objectives of teaching
2) The relationship of teaching objectives with the overall teaching program being implemented.
3) Activities to be observed
4) Possible formal changes to activities, systems, and other elements based on interactive agreement between supervisor and teacher.
5) Specific description of the items or problems that the teacher wants to return.
B. Establishing mechanisms or observation rules include:
1) Time (schedule) of observation
2) Duration of observation
3) Place of observation
C. Establish specific plans to carry out observations include:
1) Where the supervisor will sit during observation
2) Will the supervisor explain to the students the purpose of his observation if so, when before or after the lesson.
3) Will the supervisor look for a specific action.
4) Will the supervisor interact with the students
5) Should there be material or special preparation
6) How the supervisor will end the observation

2. Learning Observation Stage
The second stage in the process of clinical supervision is the systematic and objective teaching observation stage. The attention of this observation is to the teacher in acting and the class activities as a result of the teacher's actions. The time and place of teaching observation is in accordance with the mutual agreement between the supervisor and the teacher during the initial meeting.

Observation of teaching, may be very complex and difficult, and not infrequently there are supervisors who have difficulty. Thus the supervisor is required to use various skills. According to Daresh (1989) there are two aspects that must be decided and executed by the supervisor before and after carrying out teaching observations, ie determining the aspects to be observed teaching and how to observe the request. The aspects to be observed should be in accordance with the results of discussions between supervisors and Teachers at the time of the initial meeting. Aliva (1984) asserted as follows: If we follow through the cycle of clinical supervisors and supervisors, the supervisor will observe. The supervisor concentrates on the presence or absence of the specific behaviors (Oliva: 1984, page 502).

As for how to observe also need to get attention. Good intentions of supervision will be meaningless if observational efforts are not able to obtain data that should be obtained. The main purpose of data collection is to obtain information that will be used to exchange ideas with teachers after observation of activities that have been done in the classroom. Herein lies the importance of the techniques and instruments of observation that can be used to observe teachers managing the teaching and learning process.

With regard to these techniques and instruments, many researchers have developed a variety of techniques that can be used in observing teaching. Acheson and Gall (1987) review some techniques and advise us to use them in the process of clinical supervision some of these techniques are as follows:
1) Selective verbatim. Here the supervisor makes a kind of written record, which can be made with a verbatim transcript. Of course not all verbal events should be recorded and in accordance with the mutual agreement between the supervisor and the teacher at the initial meeting, only certain events should be recorded selectively. This transcript can be written directly based on observations and can also copy from what is recorded first through a tape recorder.
2) Observational record in the form of a seating chart. Here, supervisors document the behaviors of pupils as they interact with a teacher during the teaching. The entire complexity of behavior and interaction is described in illustration. Through the use of a seating chart, supervisors can graphically document the interaction of teachers with students with pupils. So it is easy to know whether the teacher only interacts with all students or only with some students, whether all students or only part of the students are involved in teaching and learning process.
3) Wide-lens techniques. Here the supervisor makes a complete record of the events in the class and the story at length. This technique can also be called anecdotal record.
4) Checkliss and timeline coding. Here the supervisor observes and collects the data on teaching and learning behavior. This learning behavior has previously been classified or categorized. The best example of this procedure in clinical supervision observation is the scale of Flanders' interaction analysis (Flanders, 1970). In this analysis, classroom activity is classified into three broad categories, namely teacher talks, student talks and silence.

Another checklist that can be used to direct teaching observation is the so-called timeline coding technique developed over the past 20 years, which is designed to learn teaching strategies. Here, supervisors record the behavior of teachers and students in certain predetermined times during certain times set previously provided during the learning process. This technique can provide data to teachers that they feel should be observed and developed. This instrument can direct the supervisor in his observations and provide specific feedback in the desired time classification.

Thus some of the techniques reviewed by Acheson and Gall have been suggested, can be used to direct and facilitate the observation stage in the clinical supervision process. An effective supervisor should be aware of some of these techniques and try to have one or more techniques according to the teacher's attention to be observed. But unfortunately, according to Daresh (1989), by looking over time, the opposite happened. And many things, the supervisor only learns one preferred observation technique, such as the Flanders Interaction analysis technique, and uses it every technique has advantages and disadvantages. However, the excess of any technique will quickly disappear if the supervisor is more insightful of just one technique that is understood and liked by not following the teacher's attention.

3. Contouring Meeting Stage
The third stage in the process of clinical supervision is the reverse meeting stage. Return meetings are held immediately after carrying out teaching observations, with the first analysis of the results of observation. The main purpose of this reversal meeting is to follow up what the supervisor sees as an onserver to the learning process. The talks in this reverse meeting are emphasized on identifying and analyzing the similarities and differences between the planned teacher and student behavior and the actual behavior of teachers and students, as well as making decisions about what and how that should be done in relation to the differences.

This feedback is an important stage for developing teacher behavior by providing specific feedback. This feedback should be descriptive, specific, concrete, motivational, actual, and accurate so that it is truly beneficial to the teacher (Sergiovanni, 1987). There are at least five benefits of return meetings for teachers, as Goldhammer, Anderson, and Krajewski (1981) have noted, that is, (1) teachers can be empowered and satisfied, so they can be motivated in their work, (2) issues in teaching Can be defined with appropriate supervisors and teachers, (3) supervisors where possible and necessary, may attempt to directly intervene teachers to provide didactic and guidance assistance; (4) teachers may be trained with this technique to supervise themselves; ) Foam teachers were given additional knowledge to improve the level of professional self-analysis in the future.

Of course, before holding this feedback meeting supervisor first analyze the observation and plan the material to be discussed with the teacher. Similarly, teachers are expected to assess themselves. After that this reverse meeting. In this reverse meeting is very necessary the openness between supervisor and teacher. Preferably, the supervisor first instills confidence in the teacher that this counter-meeting is not to blame the teacher but to provide feedback. Because many theorists who advocate first what the supervisor should do in each reverse meeting is to provide reinforcement to the teacher. Only after continuing with a joint analysis of every aspect of teaching that concerns clinical supervision. Here are some important steps to be taken during reverse meetings.
1) Inquire about teachers' feelings in general or their impression of the teaching, then the supervisor attempts to provide reinforcement.
2) Analyze the attainment of teaching objectives. Here the supervisor with the teacher identifies the difference between the planned teaching objectives and the accomplished teaching objectives.
3) Analyze the target skills and teacher's primary concern. Here (the supervisor with the teacher identifies the target skills and the major concerns that have been achieved and which have not been achieved.It may be that at this time the supervisor shows the observation record, so that the teacher knows what has been done and achieved, and which is not in accordance with the target skill and attention The main teacher as agreed at the initial meeting stage.If in the observation activities supervisors record the process of teaching and learning by electronic devices, for example by using the filming tool, then the recording should be shown to the teacher so he freely see and interpret it yourself.
4) The Supervisor asks his / her feelings after the target skill targets and the main concern.
5) Summing up the results of what he / she has gained during the clinical supervision process. Here supervision provides an opportunity for teachers to conclude the target skills and the main concerns that have been achieved during the clinical supervision process.
6) Encourage the teacher to plan the following exercises while setting out the next plan.

These are three main points in the process of clinical supervision. These three stages are actually cyclical, ie the initial meeting stage, the teaching observation stage, and the reverse meeting stage.

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