Posted by PENDIDIKAN KEWARGANEGARAAN on Jumat, 03 Maret 2017

A. Understanding of Learning Outcomes
The problem of learning is a problem for every human being, by learning people acquire the skills, skills so that attitude is formed and science increases. So the learning result is a tangible result achieved by the students in the effort to master the physical and spiritual skills in school which is manifested in the form of report cards in each semester.

To know the progress to where the results have been achieved by someone in learning, it must be evaluated. To determine the progress achieved then there must be a criterion (benchmark) that refers to the objectives that have been determined so it can be known how much influence of teaching and learning strategies to the success of student learning.

What is the definition of learning outcomes? Definition Student learning outcomes according to W. Winkel (1989) is the success achieved by students, namely student achievement in school that manifests in the form of numbers. However, this definition is not appropriate because the results of current study can be given in the form of description, uaraian or explanation.

While the definition of learning outcomes by Winarno Surakhmad (1980) is the result of repetition, examination or test. The purpose of the repetition is to obtain an index in determining student success.

From the above definition, it can be concluded that the results of learning is the result of learning achieved by students in the process of teaching and learning activities are given in the form of numbers and qualitative and mencerimkan the existence of a change and the formation of a person's behavior.

To state that a learning process can be said to be successful, every teacher has their respective views in line with his philosophy. But to equate perceptions we should be guided by the current curriculum that has been refined, among others, that a teaching and learning process of a learning material is declared successful if the purpose of learning in particular can be achieved.

To find out whether or not a particular learning objective is achievable, teachers need to conduct formative tests on each presenting a discussion to the students. Formative assessment is to determine the extent to which students have mastered the specific learning objectives to be achieved. The function of this study is to provide feedback to teachers in order to improve teaching and learning process and implement remedial programs for students who have not succeeded. Therefore, a teaching and learning process is successful if the result meets the specific learning objectives of the material.

B. Indicators of Student Learning Results
The main indicators of student learning outcomes are as follows:
a) Achievement of the Absorbability of learning materials taught, either individually or in groups. This measurement of absorptive capacity is usually done by determining the Minimum Exhaustiveness Criteria.
b) The behaviors outlined in the learning objectives have been achieved by students, either individually or in groups.
However, according to Syaiful Bahri Djamarah and Aswan Zain (in the 2002 Teachers Learning Strategy: 120) the most widely used indicator as a benchmark for success is absorption.

C. Factors Affecting Student Learning Outcomes
Learning outcomes can be influenced by many things. In general Learning outcomes are influenced by 3 things or factors Factors I will describe below, namely:
1) internal factors (factor in self)
2) External factors (factors outside the self)
3) Factors learning approach

1) Internal factors
Internal factors that affect the first learning outcomes are physiological Aspects. To obtain results Good learning outcomes, body fitness and condition of the five senses need to be maintained by way of: nutritious food / drinks, rest, exercise. Certainly many cases of children whose achievements go down because they are not physically fit.

Another internal factor is the psychological aspect. These psychological aspects include: intelligence, attitude, talent, interests, motivation and personality. This psychological factor is also a powerful factor of learning outcomes, intelligence can indeed be developed, but attitude, interest, motivation and personality are strongly influenced by our own psychological factors. Therefore, strive to continue to get a supply of motivation from the surrounding environment, strengthen the determination and establish a stance for a brighter future. Take pride.

2) External factors
In addition to internal factors, learning outcomes are also influenced by external factors. External factors include several things, namely:

a) The social environment, including: friends, teachers, family and society.
The social environment is the environment in which a person socializes, meets and interacts with the people around him. The first thing that matters from the social environment is friendship, where a friend is a source of motivation as well as a source of decline in achievement. The position of friends is very important, they are so close to us, and the behavior that they do will affect us. If you already have a weak friendship environment will be motivation to learn, as much as possible point your friends to learn. At least in that way the fetus can position itself as a learner.
Teacher, is a very related to learning outcomes. The quality of teachers in the classroom, can affect how we learn and how our interests awaken in the classroom. Indeed, in fact many students feel that their teachers are not motivating learners, or may be a monotonous learning environment. This affects the learning process.

Family, also a factor that affects a person's learning outcomes. Usually a person with a broken home state has low motivation for achievement, his life is too focused on the endless conflict of kinship. Therefore, for parents, make your family home heaven, because if not, your newborn child for a few years, do not have the concept of solving strong inner conflicts, they can be stressful to see your behavior o parents who like to quarrel, And the stress was brought into the classroom.

The latter is society, for example a living in the academic community they will retain their prestige in academic terms in front of their society. So the community environment affects the mindset of a person to achieve. Society also, with all its social activities mepengaruhi someone action, as well as also affect the students and students.

b) Non-social environment, including: home, school, equipment, nature (weather) conditions. Non-social such as the thing the house's (physically), whether neat, clean, safe, controlled from the disruption that decreases learning outcomes. Schools also influence learning outcomes, from my experience, when smart kids enter the school mediocre, their achievements can outperform other friends. But, when juxtaposed with the achievements of friends who have the same quality when graduated, and he entered the school favorite and quality, the achievements are ordinary. This means that the school environment is influential. Natural cuala, affect the learning outcomes.

D. Assessment of Learning Outcomes
According Syaiful Bahri Djamarah and Aswan Zain to measure and evaluate student learning outcomes can be done through the test of learning achievement. Based on the objectives and the scope, the achievement test can be classified into the following types of assessment:

1. Formative Tests, these assessments can measure one or more specific subjects and objectives to obtain a picture of students' absorption of the subject. The results of this test are used to improve the teaching and learning process within a certain time.

2. Subsumative Test, this test covers a number of specific teaching materials that have been taught in a certain time. The goal is to obtain a picture of students' absorptive capacity to improve the level of student achievement or learning outcomes. The results of this subsumative test are used to improve the teaching and learning process and are taken into account in determining the value of the report card.

3. Sumatif test, this test is held to measure students' absorption of the subject matter that has been taught for one semester, one or two lesson materials. The goal is to establish tarap or level of student learning success in a particular learning period. The results of this summative test are used for class increase, ranking (rank) or as a measure of school quality.

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Blog, Updated at: 14.17.00

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